Sudden Illness

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Sudden Illness

Sudden Illness can occur in any individual at times difficult to determine exact illness being

experienced by the victim. However, by knowing signs and symptoms of major disorders you may be

able to provide appropriate first aid. Obtain information from victim and look for identifying factors

such as medical alert bracelets or necklaces or medical information cards.

Heart Attack

Also called coronary thrombosis, coronary occlusion or myocardial infarction (MI). May occur when

one of the coronary arteries supplying blood to heart is blocked,If attack is severe, victim may die. If

heart stops beating, CPR must be started.

Signs and symptoms vary depending on amount of heart damage

-Severe painful pressure under sternum with pain radiating to shoulders, arms, neck and jaw

-Intense shortness of breath

-Skin, especially by lips and nailbeds, becomes pale or cyanotic (bluish) in color

–Victim weak but anxious and apprehensive

–Nausea and/or vomiting

–Diaphoresis or excessive perspiration

–Loss of consciousness may occur

First aid care

–Encourage victim to relax and reassure victim constantly

–Position in a comfortable position to relieve pain and assist breathing

–Watch for signs of shock and treat as needed

–Avoid unnecessary stress and excessive movement

–Obtain medical help ASAP

Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA)

Also called stroke, apoplexy or cerebral thrombosis

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UNIT 15

Causes:

–Formation of a clot in cerebral artery to brain

–Hemorrhage from a blood vessel in the brain

Signs and symptoms vary depending on part of brain affected

–Numbness or paralysis (usually hemiplegia –paralysis on one side of body)

–Pupils of eyes are unequal in size

–Mental confusion and slurred speech

–Nausea and vomiting

–Difficulty in breathing and swallowing

–Loss of consciousness

First aid care

–Maintain respirations

–Position victim flat or on side to allow secretions to drain from the mouth

–Avoid any fluids or food by mouth

–Reassure victim

–Avoid unnecessary stress or movement

–Obtain medical assistance ASAP

Always remember that even though victims may be unable to speak or appear to be unconscious,

they may be able to hear and understand what is happening

Fainting

Occurs when there is a temporary reduction in supply of blood to the brain.May result in partial or

complete loss of consciousness. Victim usually regains consciousness after being placed in a supine

(laying flat) position.

Early signs include dizziness, extreme pallor, diaphoresis, coldness of skin, nausea and numbness or

tingling of hands and feet. If early symptoms are noted, help victim lie down or sit in chair head with

head down at level of knees.

If victim loses consciousness, try to prevent injury

–Keep victim in supine position

–Loosen any tight clothing

–Maintain an open airway

–Gently bathe victim’s face with cool water

–Check for any injuries caused by the fall

–Keep victim flat until color improves and victim has recovered

–After recovery, allow victim to get up gradually

Obtain medical help if recovery is not prompt, other injuries occur or are suspected or if fainting

occurs again after recovery

Fainting can be a sign of a serious illness or condition

Convulsion

Violent involuntary contraction of muscles

Causes:

–High body temperatures

UNIT 15

–Head injuries

–Brain disease

–Brain disorders such as epilepsy

Progression of a convulsion

Rigidity of body muscles followed by jerking movements. Person may stop breathing, bite tongue,

lose bladder and bowel control and injury body parts. Face and lips may develop bluish or cyanotic

color. Victim loses consciousness. After regaining consciousness, victim may be confused and

disoriented and may complain of a...
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