Study on Carbohydrates

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  • Topic: Soft drink, High-fructose corn syrup, Sugar substitute
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Effect of drinking soda sweetened high-fructose corn syrup on food Michael ABSTRACT
in the

with intake

aspartame and body

or weight

G TordoffandAnnette To examine

MAlleva suggest that sweet oral stimulation initiates a cephalic-phase metabolic reflex that increases appetite (10). The long-term effects of artificial sweeteners on food intake and body weight are less clear. Although some investigators report weight gain in animals given artificial sweeteners to eat or drink (1 1-13), the majority reports no effects (11, 14-17). What little work has been done in humans does little to answer the question. Two correlative comparisons ofusers and nonusers of artificial sweeteners showed that the sweeteners had no effect on body weight (18, 19). In contrast, an epidemiological study of 78 694 women found that reported weight gain was greater in those who used artificial sweeteners than in those who did not (20). There are only three published studies that have used a causative amount when approach. ofweight ate APM replaced In one, dieters who two, during were either

whether artificial sweeteners aid intake and body weight, we gave free-living, normal-weight subjects 1 150 g soda sweetened with aspartame (APM) or high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) per day. Relative to when no soda was given, drinking APM-sweetcontrol of long-term food ened soda for 3 wk significantly reduced calorie intake drinking the of both

females
weight sweetened take

(n = 9) and males (n = of males but not of females. soda body for 3 wk significantly and

2 1) and
However,

decreased

the body
HFCScalorie in-

increased

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weight of both sexes. Ingesting either type of soda reduced intake of sugar from the diet without affecting intake of other nutrients. Drinking large volumes of APMsweetened soda, in contrast to drinking HFCS-sweetened soda, reduces sugar intake and thus may facilitate the control of calorie intake and body weight. Am J Gun Nutr 1990; 5 1:963-9.

encouraged
lost the same

or discouraged and

to use APM-sweetened
(2 1). In the other fewer calories all sucrose

products
hospitala 6- or

ized

lean
period

obese subjects

KEY WORDS
tose corn syrup,

Human
sugar,

food intake, aspartame,
body

high-fruc-

sweetness,

weight,

weight

control

Introduction It is generally
benefit

believed
taste

that

artificial

sweeteners
(1).

provide
Indeed,

the
foods

of a desirable

without

calories

and drinks containing these substances are frequently labeled “diet.” However, the possibility that sweet, low-calorie foods and drinks actually lead to a reduction in body weight has not been examined in detail. There is mounting evidence that in the short term (< 12 h), consumption of artificial sweeteners increases the motivation to eat. Rats increase food intake after drinking a saccharin solution (2). Humans report increased hunger after drinking solu-

than when they were fed a high-sucrose diet (22, 23). None of the work to date has examined the effect on food intake or body weight ofadding artificial sweeteners to the normal diet. In the present study, we attempted to do this by determining the effect on long-term (3-wk) food intake and body weight of consuming APM given in soda, the most prevalent vehicle for artificial sweeteners. By comparing periods when subjects drank APM, HFCS, and no soda, we planned to examine the effect of APM both as an addition to the diet and as a l2-d sugar substitute.

in the diet

Methods
Recruitment of subjects

tions Food than
These

of aspartame (APM), saccharin, or acesulfame-K (3, 4). intake is greater after eating a saccharin-sweetened yogurt after a glucose-sweetened or unsweetened yogurt (5). results are not caused by a postingestive or pharmacolog-

The experiment was run in two replications, held in the fall of 1987 and the spring of 1988. It...
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