Steps Involved in Processing of Data

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STEPS INVOLVED IN PROCESSING OF DATA IN RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Introduction
After the collection of the data has been done, it has to be then processed and then finally analyzed. The processing of the data involves editing, coding, classifying, tabulating and after all this analyzation of the data takes place.

Data Processing
The various aspects of the data processing can be studied as follows

1. Editing of data: – This aspect plays a very vital role in the detection of the errors and omissions and then helps to correct these errors by which ,the degree of accuracy, consistency and homogeneity are increased. By this method, coding and tabulation of the data is done and also scrutiny in a very careful manner of the completed questionnaires takes place.

Editing of the data can be done in the following two stages:-

• Field Editing – In this step, the reporting firms are reviewed by the investigator and then the translation of what the latter has noted in the abbreviated form takes place. • Central Editing -. In this type of editing, edition of all the forms is done carefully and thoroughly by a single person only in a small study and by a small group of persons in case of a large study. 2. Coding of Data: – This step involves assignment of some symbols, either alphabetical or numerals or both, to the answers.By doing this coding of the data, analysation of the data can be performed in a much efficient manner but a very vital point to be kept in mind here is that there should be no errors while assigning the codes or should be at the minimum possible level. 3. Classification of Data: – The step of classification in general terms can be defined as the arrangement of the data into groups and classes depending on the resemblance and the similarities. With the help of the classification of the data, the entire data can be condensed; with this important characteristics can be very easily noticed. The various features of the variables can be compared and the data in a tabular form can be prepared. With the classification of the data, one can highlight the salient characteristics of the data at a glance. Types of Classification

a. Geographical Classification – Here classification of data takes place on the basis of a particular area or a particular region. b. Chronological classification – This type of classification involves classification of the data on the basis of the time of its occurrence. c. Qualitative classification – Here classification of data takes place on the basis of some of the features, which are not having the ability of measurement.

d. Quantitative classification – In quantitative classification, the classification is done based on the attributes or the features that can be measured. Quantitative data can be further divided into two stages, namely discrete and continuous.

For a classification to be good in nature and working, it must possess the following set of features –

1. Data should be classified in such a way that it can be easily altered or changed with time, depending on the various situations and environment.

2. Classification of the data should be such that the data should be objective oriented.

3. A classification should never be rigid in nature, as in the case of the presence of rigidity, the classification of the data will not be able to correct the results.

4. Data classification should always be simple in nature and should also be very clear.

5. Should also be homogeneous i.e. data being kept in a particular class should be homogeneous in nature.

6. Stability forms a very major and a critical feature that should be present in a classification for it to be a good one. Stability in classification can be only achieved if minimum numbers of the changes are done in the data.

4. Tabulation of the Data – Classification of the data and the tabulation of the data have been observed to be interrelated. In this...
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