Statue of Liberty

Topics: Statue of Liberty, Upper New York Bay, Ellis Island Pages: 24 (9087 words) Published: May 25, 2013
Statue of Liberty
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Statue of Liberty (disambiguation).

Statue of Liberty|
Location| Liberty Island
New York City, New York, U.S.[1]|
Coordinates| 40°41′21″N 74°2′40″WCoordinates: 40°41′21″N 74°2′40″W| Height| * 151 feet 1 inch (46 meters) * Ground to torch: 305 feet 1 inch (93 meters)| Dedicated| October 28, 1886|

Restored| 1938, 1984–1986, 2011–2012|
Sculptor| Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi|
Visitation| 3.2 million (in 2009[2])|
Governing body| U.S. National Park Service|
UNESCO World Heritage Site|
Type| Cultural|
Criteria| i, vi|
Designated| 1984 (8th session)|
Reference No.| 307|
State Party| United States|
Region| Europe and North America|
U.S. National Register of Historic Places|
Official name: Statue of Liberty National Monument, Ellis Island and Liberty Island| Designated| October 15, 1966[3]|
Reference No.| 66000058|
U.S. National Monument|
Designated| October 15, 1924|
Designated by| President Calvin Coolidge[4]|
New York City Landmark|
Type| Individual|
Designated| September 14, 1976[5]|
Location of Statue of Liberty in New York Harbor|
The Statue of Liberty (Liberty Enlightening the World; French: La Liberté éclairant le monde) is a colossal neoclassical sculpture on Liberty Island in New York Harbor, designed by Frédéric Bartholdi and dedicated on October 28, 1886. The statue, a gift to the United States from thepeople of France, is of a robed female figure representing Libertas, the Roman goddess of freedom, who bears a torch and a tabula ansata (a tablet evoking the law) upon which is inscribed the date of the American Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1776. A broken chain lies at her feet. The statue is an icon of freedom and of the United States: a welcoming signal to immigrants arriving from abroad. Bartholdi was inspired by French law professor and politician Édouard René de Laboulaye, who commented in 1865 that any monument raised to American independence would properly be a joint project of the French and American peoples. Due to the troubled political situation in France, work on the statue did not commence until the early 1870s. In 1875, Laboulaye proposed that the French finance the statue and the Americans provide the site and build the pedestal. Bartholdi completed the head and the torch-bearing arm before the statue was fully designed, and these pieces were exhibited for publicity at international expositions. The torch-bearing arm displayed at the Centennial Exposition in 1876 and in New York's Madison Square Park from 1876 to 1882. Fundraising proved difficult, especially for the Americans, and by 1885 work on the pedestal was threatened due to lack of funds. Publisher Joseph Pulitzer of the World started a drive for donations to complete the project that attracted more than 120,000 contributors, most of whom gave less than a dollar. The statue was constructed in France, shipped overseas in crates, and assembled on the completed pedestal on what was then called Bedloe's Island. The statue's completion was marked by New York's first ticker-tape parade and a dedication ceremony presided over by President Grover Cleveland. The statue was administered by the United States Lighthouse Board until 1901 and then by the Department of War; since 1933 it has been maintained by the National Park Service. The statue was closed for renovation for much of 1938. In the early 1980s, it was found to have deteriorated to such an extent that a major restoration was required. While the statue was closed from 1984 to 1986, the torch and a large part of the internal structure were replaced. After the September 11 attacks in 2001, it was closed for reasons of safety and security; the pedestal reopened in 2004 and the statue in 2009, with limits on the number of visitors allowed to...
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