Statistical Literature Review and Critique of Empirical Article

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  • Topic: James Bond, Die Another Day, Casino Royale
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ARTICLE REVIEW AND CRITIQUE:
“Efficiency of Brand Placement in an International Film- Effects of Exposure in a Local Context” Slim Khalbous and Merium Maazoul
Journal of Creative Communications, Volume 5, Issue 1 (March 2010), p.23-46 SYNOPSIS
Product and brand placement arouses a particular interest at the announcers. However the massive use of brands in international programs incites us to wonder about the effect of the local socio-cultural context on the efficiency of this creative technique. This research presents, first an explanatory abstract frame of the influence of the local context variables and the variables of programming on the recall of the placement; and second an empirical validation realized in two phases. First of all, a qualitative analysis of contents by experts; then a quantitative study by experimentation realized with 150 individuals. The results show that, globally the effect of the local context on the memorization of the placement is direct and that the recall of the placed brands depends on attitudes towards the spoken language, on social interactions and some characteristics of the audience. KEYWORDS

Brand placement, recall, programming, context, exposing language, social interactions The empirical application was done by showing a James Bond film that had several product placements in a part of North Africa called Tunisia; an area where a lot of international films are consumed. The study wanted to explore the “effect of the specific context related to the international film on the effectiveness of the placement in terms of memorization.” In order to do this, the research had to go through three stages: (1) a state of the art, which generated some of the research propositions (2) a qualitative phase, to choose and analyze the international film, and (3) a quantitative phase, which would measure the impact of exposure in the effectiveness of placement in the film. Attitudes toward Language Effect

Foreign language can improve the advertising effectiveness for a product because a foreign language attracts attention, creates a positive attitude, and is more memorable, which can be explained by Helfer’s theory of ambiguity. A study done by Khalbous and Maazaul in 2007 proved that the “attitude toward advertising is positive when the audience prefers watching the programs in French and commercials in Arabic.” Social interactions also play a huge role in product memorization and attitudes because people will remember what they were saying or doing with others while watching television or film. Individual Variables Effect

Gender and the area of residence are two variables on the effectiveness of product placement. American, French, and Austrian men are more likely to accept a product seen in films than women according to studies. However, another study showed that women have more positive attitudes towards placement. “On the other hand, women would be emotionally more touched than men, by the stimuli which surrounds them, especially television programs to which they are exposed (Schwartz et al. 1980).” The area of residence is the other factor. The wealthier areas are more likely to be less favorable towards product placement because they are exposed to it more, and have become bored with the predictability of it. “According to the study of Hall (2004), the percentage of consumers who said they would try a product if they saw it in a film is 53 percent in Mexico, 49 percent in Singapore, 35 percent in India, and only 26 percent in the USA and 8 percent in France.” The Effect of Specific Context Related to the Program

The appreciation of an international film, and the intensity of the emotions generated by the film were the two aspects being studied in this area of research. Most of the interest was about the impact of the characteristics of the film and how they affect the audience’s cognitive reactions. Program Liking Effect

Although there was no link found between the film’s likability...
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