A business graduate very much wants to get a job in any one of the top 10 accounting firms. Applying to any of these companies requires a lot of effort and paperwork and is therefore costly. She estimates the cost of applying to each of the 10 companies and the probability of getting a job offer there. These data are tabulated below. The tabulation is in the decreasing order of cost.

1.If the graduate applies to all 10 companies, what is the probability that she will get at least one offer? 2.If she can apply to only one company, base on cost and success probability criteria alone, should she apply to company 5? Why or why not? 3.If she applies to companies 2,5,8, and 9, what is the total cost? What is the probability that she will get at least one offer? 4.If she wants to be at least 75% confident of getting at least one offer, to which companies should she apply to minimize the total cost? 5.If she is willing to spend $1,500, to which companies should she apply to maximize her chances of getting at least one job?

Company 12345678910
Cost $870$600$540$500$400$320$300$230$200$170
Probability0.380.350.280.200.180.180.170.140.140.08

A manufacturing company regularly consumes a special type of glue purchased from a foreign supplier. Because the supplier is foreign, the time gap between placing an order and receiving the shipment against that order is long and uncertain. This time gap is called “lead time.” From past experience, the materials manager notes that the company’s demand for glue during the uncertain lead time is normally distributed with a mean of 187.6 gallons and a standard deviation of 12.4 gallons. The company follows a policy of placing an order when the glue stock falls to a predetermined value called the “reorder point.” Note that if the reorder point is x gallons and the demand during lead time exceeds x gallons, the glue would go “stock-out” and the production process would have to...

...I'll be honest. Standarddeviation is a more difficult concept than the others we've covered. And unless you are writing for a specialized, professional audience, you'll probably never use the words "standarddeviation" in a story. But that doesn't mean you should ignore this concept.
The standarddeviation is kind of the "mean of the mean," and often can help you find the story behind the data. To understand this concept, it can help to learn about what statisticians call normal distribution of data.
A normal distribution of data means that most of the examples in a set of data are close to the "average," while relatively few examples tend to one extreme or the other.
Let's say you are writing a story about nutrition. You need to look at people's typical daily calorie consumption. Like most data, the numbers for people's typical consumption probably will turn out to be normally distributed. That is, for most people, their consumption will be close to the mean, while fewer people eat a lot more or a lot less than the mean.
When you think about it, that's just common sense. Not that many people are getting by on a single serving of kelp and rice. Or on eight meals of steak and milkshakes. Most people lie somewhere in between.
If you looked at normally distributed data on a graph, it would look something like this:
The x-axis (the horizontal one) is the value in question......

...Deviation
Definition:
Behavior commonly seen in children that is the result of some obstacle to normal development such behavior may be commonly understand as negative (a timid child, a destructive child) or positive (a quite child), both positive and negative deviation will disappear once the child begins to concentrate on a piece of work freely chosen by him.
The physical deforms are easier to identify. This can be by birth due to an accident etc… and most such physical deforms can be either cured. However, deforms that take place in development of psychological aspects of a child are not only threat to building the character and the personality of the child also you find certain physical deforms in curable in medicine.
Dr. Montessori, according to her she fugues deviated children are.
The naughty children act and react very strong as a result of severe treatment they have received. So their behavior is cruel from others.
The weak children are always mistaken for good children and parent are happy because of their timidly and but they are lazy and afraid of everything.
The bright children are very imaginative and live in their own fantasy world.
Deviations shown by the strong and weak children are:
In the absorbent mind Montessori discussed deviation shown by the strong, meaning those who resist and overcome the obstacles they meet and deviation...

...StandardDeviation (continued)
L.O.: To find the mean and standarddeviation from a frequency table.
The formula for the standarddeviation of a set of data is [pic]
Recap question
A sample of 60 matchboxes gave the following results for the variable x (the number of matches in a box):
[pic].
Calculate the mean and standarddeviation for x.
Introductory example for finding the mean and standarddeviation for a table:
The table shows the number of children living in a sample of households:
|Number of children, x |Frequency, f |xf |x2f |
|0 |14 |0 × 14 = 0 |02 × 14 = 0 |
|1 |12 |1 × 12 = 12 | |
|2 |8 | | |
|3 |6 | |32 × 6 = 54 |
|TOTAL |[pic]...

...StandardDeviation
objective
• Describe standarddeviation and
it’s importance in biostatistics.
Measure of Dispersion
• Indicates how widely the scores
are dispersed around the central
point (or mean.)
-StandarddeviationStandardDeviation.
• The most commonly used method
of dispersion in oral hygiene.
• The larger the standarddeviation,
the wider the distribution curve.
StandardDeviation
• SD, , (sigma)
• Indicates how subjects differ from
the average of the group/ the more
they spread out, the larger the
deviation
• Based upon ALL scores, not just
high/low or middle half
• Analyzes descriptively the spread of
scores around the mean
– 14+ 2.51 = Mean of 14 and SD of
2.51
StandardDeviation
• The spread of scores around the
mean:
• For example, if the mean is 60 and
the standarddeviation 10, the
lowest score might be around 30,
and the highest score might be
around 90.
StandardDeviation &
Variance
Usefulness
• When comparing the amount of dispersion in
two data sets.
• Greater variance = greater dispersion
• Standarddeviation--”average” difference
between the mean of a sample and each data
value in the sample
14+ 2.51 = Mean of 14 and SD of 2.51
Distribution...

...calls at random to residential phones, both mobile and landline. The purpose of the survey is to determine the percentage of adults who would favor a half-cent increase in the sales tax to help fund public transportation. Four hundred adults are interviewed and 36% of them favor the proposal. Answer the next two questions.
1. The sample size for this sample survey appears to be
a) 400
b) 2,800,000
c) 144
d) 1,008,000
2. The 36% is a
a) Parameter
b) Margin of error
c) Chance of 144 people agreeing to the statement
d) Statistic
3. Event A occurs with probability 0.05. Event B occurs with probability 0.75. If A and B are disjoint, which statement is true?
a) P(A and B) = 0
b) P(A or B) = 0.80
c) P(A and B) = 0.0375
d) Both (a) and (b) are true.
4. Event A occurs with probability 0.05. Event B occurs with probability 0.75. If A and B are independent, which statement is true.
e) P(A and B) = 0
a) P(A or B) = 0.80
b) P(A and B) = 0.0375
c) Both (a) and (b) are true.
A marketing research firm wishes to determine if the adult men in Laramie, Wyoming would be interested in a new upscale men's clothing store. From a list of all residential addresses in Laramie, the firm selects a simple random sample of 100 and mails a brief questionnaire to each. Use this information to answer the next three questions.
5. The population of...

...milligrams of tar per cigarette and a standarddeviation equal to 1.0 milligram. Suppose a sample of 100 low-tar cigarettes is randomly selected from a day’s production and the tar content is measured in each. Assuming that the tobacco company’s claim is true, what is the probability that the mean tar content of the sample is greater than 4.15 milligrams?
[0.00621]
2. The safety limit of a crane is known to be 32 tons. The mean weight and the standarddeviation of a large number of iron rods are 0.3 ton and 0.2 ton respectively. One hundred rods are lifted at a time. Compute the probability of an accident.
[0.1587]
3. A soft –drink vending machine is set so that the amount of drink dispensed is a random variable with a mean of 200 milliliters and a standarddeviation of 15 milliliters. What is the probability that the mean amount dispensed in a random sample of size 36 is at least 204 milliliters?
[0.0548]
4. An automatic machine in a manufacturing process is operating properly if the lengths of an important subcomponent are normally distributed with mean (μ) = 117 cm and standarddeviation (σ) = 6.1 cm. Find the probability that if four subcomponents are randomly selected, their mean length exceeds 120 cm.
[0.16354]
5. The number of pizzas...

...the new point on the standarddeviation?
The new point has made the standarddeviation to go up to over 2.07
b) Follow the instructions to create the next two graphs then answer the following question: What did you do differently to create the data set with the larger standarddeviation.
What I did differently was to have two outliners on both ends of the outline so I can create the largerstandarddeviation and also to keep the mean at five.
2. Go back to the applet and put points matching each of the following data set into the first graph of the applet and clear the other two graphs. Set the lower limit to 0 and the upper limit to 100.
50, 50, 50, 50, 50
Notice that the standarddeviation is 0. Explain why the standarddeviation for this one is zero. Don’t show just the calculation. Explain in words why the standarddeviation is zero when all of the points are the same.
There’s not a deviation from this sample because all the data points are equal to each other.
3. Go back to the applet one last time and set all 3 of the lower limits to 0 and upper limits to 100. Then put each of the following three data sets into one of the graphs.
Data set 1: 0, 25, 50, 75, 100
Data set 2: 30, 40, 50, 60,...

...Mean and StandardDeviation
The mean, indicated by μ (a lower case Greek mu), is the statistician's jargon for the average value of a signal. It is found just as you would expect: add all of the samples together, and divide by N. It looks like this in mathematical form:
In words, sum the values in the signal, xi, by letting the index, i, run from 0 to N-1. Then finish the calculation by dividing the sum by N. This is identical to the equation: μ =(x0 + x1 + x2 + ... + xN-1)/N. If you are not already familiar with Σ (upper case Greek sigma) being used to indicate summation, study these equations carefully, and compare them with the computer program in Table 2-1. Summations of this type are abundant in DSP, and you need to understand this notation fully. In electronics, the mean is commonly called the DC (direct current) value. Likewise, AC (alternating current) refers to how the signal fluctuates around the mean value. If the signal is a simple repetitive waveform, such as a sine or square wave, its excursions can be described by its peak-to-peak amplitude. Unfortunately, most acquired signals do not show a well defined peak-to-peak value, but have a random nature, such as the signals in Fig. 2-1. A more generalized method must be used in these cases, called the standarddeviation, denoted by σ (a lower case Greek sigma).
As a starting point, the expression,|xi-μ|, describes how far the ith sample deviates...

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