The usage of graphs are essential in the illustration and comprehension of statistical output. They type of graphs used depends on the author and the view they are trying to portrait. Graphs can be used to prove or disprove a theory based on its presentation.

The Following graph is used as a visually depiction of a sample of grade school childern of whom an IQ exam was performed.

Figure: The histogram figures shown are extracts of an IQ test performed on elementary school subjects and is graphed with a normal curve.

Judging from the raw data provided and the visual inspection of this graph, it is easy to conclude without prejudice that the male (represented by the number 1) subjects of this research tend to score better on the exam than that of its female counterpart (represented by the number 2). However, the male output is more skewed in its distribution where the symmetry of the female output has more equal and distinct meaning when viewing the kurtosis of the graph and hover around the mean of about 100. Although the Male output is more diverse, its concentration of variables is more spread out. I think we should take note that the amounts of female subjects were far lesser than the male so the raw visually data seems bias and in favor of the male. I also believe that we cannot definitively gain an accurate conclusion by visual inspection alone. Looking further into the dataset, we can see the modality for both male and female is around 100. This suggests that the two sets are relatively close rather than one being superior. Looking at the graph, we cannot possibly make this determination. In this scenario, the dependent variables (what we are studying) are the students themselves and their individual results. The independent variables (what is being administered or modified) are the tests and the contents of the tests, which is the controlled aspect of the experiment. The male data skewed in its presentation because the amounts of subject...

...end period 2012 is by conduct a confidence level method for the mean amount of wages in period 2012. From a one organisation we randomly select a sample of 80 workers has been selected, with 5% significant level for each analysis. Based on SPSSoutput below conduct this analysis and interpret the result.
Variable: wages 2012
One-Sample Statistics |
| N | Mean | Std. Deviation | Std. Error Mean |
Wages2012 | 80 | 30533.09 |...

...DISCRIMINANT /GROUPS=R(1 2) /VARIABLES=Writtentest GD PI /ANALYSIS ALL /SAVE=CLASS /PRIORS EQUAL /STATISTICS=MEAN STDDEV RAW CORR TABLE CROSSVALID /CLASSIFY=NONMISSING POOLED.
Discriminant
Notes Output Created Comments Input Data C: \Users\Student\Desktop\experiment for disciminant analysis.sav DataSet1 30 User-defined missing values are treated as missing in the analysis phase. In the analysis phase, cases with no user- or...

...city
Y= duration of residence in that city
H0 = rXY=0 i.e there is NO relationship between the 2 continuous variables X and Y
Ha ≠0, there is a relationship between the 2 continuous variables X and Y
Analyze -> correlate -> bivariate
The SPSSoutput indicates that rXY has a value of .936. Clearly this value of rxy seems different from zero. However the question that arises is whether this value of rxy is statistically different from zero at 95% level of...

...Human nature refers to the distinguishing characteristics, including ways of thinking, feeling and acting, that humans tend to have naturally, independently of the influence of culture. The questions of what these characteristics are, what causes them, and how fixed human nature is, are amongst the oldest and most important questions in western philosophy. These questions have particularly important implications in ethics, politics, and theology. This is partly because human nature can be...

...addressed before computing the scores on the questionnaires and before conducting any analyses. This handout describes the distinction between positively-keyed items and negatively-keyed items, it describes the logic of reverse-scoring, and it outlines SPSS steps to reverse-score negatively keyed items.
Positively-keyed items and negatively-keyed items
Positively-keyed items are items that are phrased so that an agreement with the item represents a relatively high...

...
1. Mediation
SPSS can calculate the Baron/Kenny approach using three separate linear regressions, but SPSS can not calculate the Sobel Test.
A macro on the following website allows SPSS to calculate Baron/Kenny and Sobel simultaneously.
Here are the instructions for using the macro:
1. Go to this website – http://www.comm.ohio-state.edu/ahayes/sobel.htm (also listed on PsychWiki)
2. Download the macro to your computer by clicking on...

...Statistics Practical 1
(IBM—SPSS – Statistics)
IBM SPSS Statistics version 20 [SPSS]:
IBM SPSS [Statistical Package for the Social Sciences] formerly called SPSS is a statistical
software. There are several versions but we will use version 20.
During the practical sessions you will use SPSS to define variables, enter data and carry out
descriptive (Frequencies and Percentages, Mean +/- SD) and...

...QUANTITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS USING SPSS
AN INTRODUCTION
FOR HEALTH AND SOCIAL SCIENCE
Pete Greasley
Quantitative Data Analysis Using SPSS
Quantitative Data Analysis Using SPSS
An Introduction for Health & Social Science
Pete Greasley
Open University Press McGraw-Hill Education McGraw-Hill House Shoppenhangers Road Maidenhead Berkshire England SL6 2QL email: enquiries@openup.co.uk world wide...

34587 Words |
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