Southernization Essay - Ap World History

Topics: Indian Ocean, India, Southeast Asia Pages: 6 (2075 words) Published: May 20, 2013
Southernization Essay

The idea of Southernization came from the observation that "Southern" values and beliefs were becoming more important to the success of the government, reaching a climax in the 1990s, with a Democratic president and vice-president from the South, and Congressional leaders in both parties originating in the South. Some would agree that Southern values started to become more and more important in national elections through the early 21st century. American journalists started to use the term "Southernization" in the late 2000s to describe the political and cultural effects. Credit is given to the American South for different values and beliefs, including religious fundamentalism, and patriotism or nationalism. Other than the cultural influence, many would comply that the South had permeated the national political stage. The routine known as southernization first began in Southern Asia. By the fifth century C.E., developments associated with southernization were present in India, from where they then spread to China, and to the Middle East and the Mediterranean basin. After 1200 they began to have an impact on southern Europe. These progressions included the discovery of bullion sources, the emergence of a new mathematics, the pioneering of trade routes, the trade in tropical spices, the cultivation of southern crops such as sugar and cotton, and the invention of various technologies. Indians also invented the concept of zero, which the Arabs eventually conveyed to the Europeans. What the West called Arabic numerals, the Arabs called Hindi numerals. The term southernization is said to be correspondent to westernization. Westernization is associated with certain developments that first occurred in Western Europe. Those advances changed Europe and in the course of time, expanded to other places, changing them as well. In the same way, southernization changed Southern Asia, later spreading to other areas, which then also underwent a process of innovation. During the early Muslim Caliphates, sugar, cotton, and citrus fruits spread north. The Arabs were the first to import large numbers of East African slaves to work sugar plantations at the north end of the Persian Gulf. By 1000, sugar and cotton had become important crops from Iran to Spain. Arabs also pioneered new trade routes and discovered new sources of silver in Tashkent and in Afghanistan that rivaled the later discoveries near Potosi in the New World. After silver became relatively abundant, Arabs sought new sources of gold in East and West Africa. By 1200 the process of southernization had created a prosperous south from China to the Muslim Mediterranean. The Mongol conquests then helped to southernize northern regions across Eurasia. Southernization was not overtaken by westernization until the Industrial Revolution in the eighteenth century. Only after the northwestern Europeans had added to their repertoire every one of the elements of southernization did the world become divided into a powerful, prestigious, and rich north and an impoverished south perceived to be in need of development. During the first century C.E., Egypt started to become an important market for Indian cottons via the sea. By the coming century, these textiles were strongly needed, and by the fifth century, they were being exchanged in Southeast Asia. The Indian trade of textiles continued to expand throughout the turn of the century. The position of the subcontinent was not impaired until Britain’s Industrial Revolution, since steam engines started to power the cotton production. Another part of southernization, the search for new sources of wealth, can be traced back to the Mauryan Empire’s end. During that time, India mainly got their gold from Siberia, but disturbances from wandering people interfered with the traffic between Siberia and India. Sailors for India then began to travel around to find an alternative source, which they probably found with the help of...
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