Sop for Msc in Electrical Engineering

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e idea of the first cellular network was brainstormed in 1947. It was intended to be used for military purposes as a way of supplying troops with more advanced forms of communications. From 1947 till about 1979 several different forms of broadcasting technology emerged. The United States began to develop the AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone Service) network, while European countries were developing their own forms of communication. 1.2 History of GSM Technology Europeans quickly realized the disadvantages of each European country operating on their mobile network. It prevents cell phone use from country to country within Europe. With the emerging European Union and high travel volume between countries in Europe this was seen as a problem. Rectifying the situation the Conference of European Posts and Telegraphs (CEPT) assembled a research group with intentions of researching the mobile phone system in Europe. This group was called Group Special Mobile (GSM). For the next ten years the GSM group outlined standards, researched technology and designed a way to implement a pan-European mobile phone network. In 1989 work done by the GSM group was transferred to the European Telecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI). The name GSM was transposed to name the type of service invented. The acronym GSM had been changed from Group Special Mobile to Global Systems Mobile Telecommunications. By April of 1991 commercial service of the GSM network had begun. Just a year and half later in 1993 there were already 36 GSM networks in over 22 countries. Several other countries were on the rise to adopt this new mobile phone network and participate in what was becoming a worldwide standard. At the same time, GSM also became widely used in the Middle East, South Africa and Australia. While the European Union had developed a sophisticated digital cell phone system, the United States was still operating primarily on the old, analog AMPS network and TDMA. Department of E&C 2010 Lovely Institute of Technology, Phagwara 2

RF OPTIMIZATION AND PLANNING In the end o the end of October 2001, Cingular was the first to announce their switch to the 3G GSM network. This involved switching more then 22 million customers from TDMA to GSM. In 2005 Cingular stopped new phone activation on the TDMA network and began only selling GSM service. 1.3 History of GSM in brief •1982:CEPT (Conference of European Posts and Telecommunications) establishes a GSM group in order to develop the standards for pan-European cellular mobile system

•1988:Validation of the GSM System. •1991:Commercial launch of the GSM service. •1992:Enlargement of the countries that signed the GSM-MoU> Coverage of larger cities/airports. •1993:Coverage of main roads GSM services start outside Europe. •1995:Phase 2 of the GSM specifications Coverage of rural areas. 1.4 GSM Frequency Band There are five major GSM frequencies that have become standard worldwide. They are following ♦GSM-1800 ♦GSM850

♦GSM-1900
♦GSM-400
1.4.1 GSM-900 and GSM-1800 GSM-900 and GSM-1800 are standards used mostly worldwide. It is the frequency European phones operate on as well as most of Asia and Australia. 1.4.2 GSM-850 and GSM-1900 GSM-850 and GSM-1900 are primarily United States frequencies. They are also the standard for Canada GSM service and countries in Latin and South America. Most of the Cingular network operates on GSM 850, while much of T-Mobile operates at GSM-1900. T-Mobile however, has roaming agreements with Cingular. Meaning in the case of no service at GSM-1900, the phone will switch to GSM-850 and operate on Cingular’s network. 1.4.3 GSM-400 GSM-400 is the least popular of the bunch and is rarely used. It is an older frequency that was used in Russia and Europe before GSM-900 and GSM-1800 became available. There are not many networks currently operating at this frequency. .5 GSM Services . The GSM services are grouped into three categories: 1. Teleservices (TS)

2. Bearer services (BS)
3. Supplementary...
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