1. What structure separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities and what is it made of? The diaphragm. Made of skeletal muscle
2. What is the collective name for the contents of the ventral cavity? The viscera
3. What are the main functions of these membranes and the potential space they form? To secrete serous fluid which allows the parietal membrane to slide over the visceral membrane without friction.
What is the clinical condition that develops when air is able to enter the potential space of the pleural membrane? Pneumothorax
What is the clinical condition called when the membrane of the abdominal cavity is inflamed? (hint: periton****)
6. How does an organ differ from a tissue?
Tissues are collections of specialised cells and cell products that perform - a relatively limited number of functions (or a specific function) [or one or more specific functions]. Organs are combinations of tissue that perform complex functions. (or two or more tissues working in combination to perform several functions).
6. Using the gastro-intestinal tract as an example, list the cavity/cavities in which organs of this system are found. (buccal cavity), thoracic cavity (oesophagus), abdomino-pelvic cavity (rest of organs) – may separate organs into abdominal cavity and into pelvic cavity.
Using the gastro-intestinal tract as an example, list the cavity/cavities in which organs of this system are found.
(buccal cavity), thoracic cavity (oesophagus), abdomino-pelvic cavity (rest of organs) – may separate organs into abdominal cavity and into pelvic cavity.
Do all organs of the body lie within a body cavity? If not, give examples.
No. muscles & bones lie outside cavities, kidneys (part of the pancreas) are “retroperitoneal” so lie “outside” the abdominal cavity.
Using directional terms, describe the appearance of the body when it is standing in the ‘Anatomical Position’ .
Body vertical, feet inferior to waist & knees, feet not everted, legs neither flexed nor extended, arms lateral to trunk, hands inferior to elbows, face directed anteriorly, neck neither flexed nor extended.
10.Describe the position of each of the following using anatomical, directional terms: ear (compared to the nose and to chin), elbow (compared to the wrist & shoulder), vertebrae (compared to sternum and kidneys).
Ear is lateral to parietal bone(or nose), superior to mandible. Elbow is proximal to hand, but distal to shoulder
Backbone is posterior to lungs & viscera and medial to shoulder blades.
Describe how the body is sectioned by the Frontal, Sagittal and Transverse planes. Frontal
You would see the body as if you were standing in front of a mirror looking at your self . A plane that divided the body into anterior and posterior sections
Sagittal: you would see an arm sliced lengthways into a front half (anterior) and a back half (posterior) so see same tissues as in transverse section, but not as “rings”. Transverse
Transverse: you see “rings” of (going from superficial to deep) skin, subcut fat, muscle, bone (=radius/ulna, or humerous)
What organs would you find in the Right Hypochondriac Region?
(ascending) large intestine, liver
Table 1: Comparison of metric units of length
1 metre (m)
1 centimetre (cm)
1 millimetre (mm)
1 micrometre (*m)
Red Blood Cell RBC
red in colour
White blood cells WBC
Have a nucleus
some have granulaes
irregular shaped cells wall unlike RBC
What do you think these formed elements in the blood could be? ( Hint: they assist in coagulation) Platelets
What views do the T and the L represent?
Smooth muscle cells in longitudinal and transverse sections....
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