Solubility

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Project on Saturated Solutions: Measuring Solubility

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Index

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Certificate Acknowledgement Objective Introduction Basic concepts Materials and Equipment Experimental Procedure Observation Conclusion Result

Precautions

Bibliography

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CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the Project titled 'Saturated solutions: Measuring Solubility' was completed under my guidance and supervision by Roll No. ________ a student of XII SCI, Faith Academy within the stipulated time as prescribed by

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the CBSE. Mrs. Sasheela Jose Head, Department of Chemistry Faith Academy New Delhi

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I gratefully acknowledge my sincere thanks to our respected chemistry teacher Mrs.Sasheela Jose for her remarkable, valuable guidance and supervision throughout the project work. I ' m also most indebted to Mrs.Rao for her encouragement, help, suggestion and readily helpful service in performing the experiment.

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Parichay Saxena Roll NO :

Objective:
The goal of this project is to measure the solubilities of some common chemicals: • Table salt (NaCl) • Epsom salts (MgSO4) • sugar (sucrose, C12H22O11).

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Introduction
A good part of the substances we deal with in daily life, such as milk, gasoline, shampoo, wood, steel and air are mixtures. When the mixture is homogenous, that is to say, when its components are intermingled evenly, it is called a solution. There are various types of solutions, and these can be categorized by state (gas, liquid, or solid). The chart below gives some examples of solutions in different states. Many essential chemical reactions and natural processes occur in liquid solutions, particularly those containing water (aqueous solutions) because so many things dissolve in water. In fact, water is sometimes referred to as the universal solvent. The electrical charges in water molecules help dissolve different kinds of substances. Solutions form when the force of attraction between solute and solvent is greater than the force of attraction between the particles in the solute. Two examples of such important processes are the uptake of nutrients by plants, and the chemical weathering of minerals. Chemical weathering begins to take place when carbon dioxide in the air dissolves in rainwater. A solution called carbonic acid is formed. The process is then completed as the acidic water seeps into rocks and dissolves underground limestone deposits. Sometimes, the dissolving of soluble minerals in rocks can even lead to the formation of caves.

Types of Solutions
Example Air, natural gas Alcohol in water, antifreeze Brass, steel Carbonated water, soda Sea water, sugar solution Hydrogen in platinum State of Solute gas liquid solid gas solid 1

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State of Solvent gas liquid solid liquid liquid solid

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State of Solution gas liquid solid liquid liquid solid

If one takes a moment to consider aqueous solutions, one quickly observes that they exhibit many interesting properties. For example, the tap water in your kitchen sink does not freeze at exactly 0°C. This is because tap water is not pure water; it contains dissolved solutes. Some tap water, commonly known as hard water, contains mineral solutes such as calcium carbonate, magnesium sulfate, calcium chloride, and iron sulfate. Another interesting solution property is exhibited with salt and ice. Another example comes from the fact that salt is spread on ice collected on roads in winters. When the ice begins to melt, the salt dissolves in the water and forms salt water. The reason is that with the adition of salt the melting point of water increases and as aresult the snow melts away faster. Even some organisms have evolved to survive freezing water temperatures with natural "antifreeze." Certain arctic fish have blood containing a high concentration of a specific...
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