sociology chapters 1-4

Topics: Sociology, Jean Piaget, Social status Pages: 5 (1295 words) Published: September 24, 2014
1. Culture
a. The totality of learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects, and behavior. 2. Society
a. People when live in the same territory, independent of people outside their area, and participate in a common culture. 3. Ethnocentrism
a. Refer to the tendency to assume that one’s culture and way of life represent the norm or are superior to all others. b. William graham sumner
4. Subculture
a. A segment of society that shares a distinctive pattern of customs, rules, and traditions that differs from the pattern of the larger society. 5. Social interaction
a. Refer to the ways in which people respond to one another, where face to face or over the telephone or on the computer. 6. Culture lag
a. Refer to the period of maladjustment when the nonmaterial culture is still struggling to adapt to new material conditions b. William. Ogburn
7. Dramaturgical approach
a. Goffman (1959)
b. People resemble performers in action
8. Master status
a. A status that dominates others & determines a person’s general position in society. 9. Role strain
a. Describe the difficulty that arises when the same social position imposes conflicting demands and expectations. i. Role conflict describes situation of a person dealing with the challenge of occupying two social positions 10. Achieved status

a. A social position that a person attains largely through his/her own efforts 11. Norms
a. Established standards of behavior maintained by a society b. Significant- shared & understood
12. Cultural shock
a. Anyone who feels disoriented, uncertain out of place or even fearful when immersed in a unfamiliar culture may experience 13. Sociology
a. Simply, scientific study of social behavior and human groups 14. Gender roles
a. Expectations regarding the proper behavior, attitudes, and activities of males and females 15. Ascribed status
a. Assigned to a person by society without regard for the person’s unique talents or characteristics i. Takes place a birth [gender, age, racial]
ii. Biological in origin- social meaning
16. Macrosociology
a. Concentrates on large- scale phenomena or entire civilizations i. Emile durkheim’s cross-cultural study of suicides [macro-level research] 17. Symbols
a. Gestures, objects, and words that form the basis of human communication i. Cross neck symbolize religious
ii. Cross over grave- everlasting life
18. Gulfman noted for
a. Dramaturgical approach
19. Durkheim noted for
a. Macro-level research of suicides
i. Macrosociology
b. Anomie
20. Piaget noted for
a. Cognitive theory of development
i. Sensorimotor stage
ii. Preoperational stage
iii. Concrete operational stage
iv. Formal operational stage
21. William Dubois noted for
a. Black
b. Conducted research that they hoped would assist in the struggle for a racially egalitarian society c. Believed that knowledge was essential in combating prejudice and achieving tolerance & justice d. 1909- helped found the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) 22. Hebert Spencer noted for

a. Adapted Darwin’s evolutionary view of the “survival of the fittest” i. Arguing that it is natural that some people are rich and some are poor b. Societies structural parts work together for the purpose of preservation 23. Robert Williams noted for

a. List of basic values
i. Achievement, efficiency, material comfort, nationalism, equality, and the supremacy of science and reason over faith. 24. Karl Marx noted for
a. Society was divided between two classes that clashed in pursuit of their own interests b. Factory center of conflict
i. Exploiters (owners of production)
ii. Exploited( workers)
c. Emphasized the group identifications & associations that influence an individual’s place in society i. CONTEMPORARY SOCIOLOGY.
25. Jane Addams noted for
a. Concerned about the lives of immigrants in the nation’s growing cities b. Took active roles in poor urban areas as leaders of community centers known as...
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