Sociology

Topics: Sociology, Émile Durkheim, Religion Pages: 5 (1200 words) Published: November 30, 2013
Durkheim's most excellent works!!
1. 1893 DIVISION OF LABOR IN SOCIETY
2. 1894 RULES OF SOCIOLOGICAL METHOD
3. 1897 SUICIDE
4. 1896 BEGAN JOURNAL, ANNEE SOCIOLOGIQUE
5. 1912 ELEMENTARY FORMS OF RELIGIOUS LIFE

1914 WORLD WAR I
1916 ONLY SON, ANDRE, KILLED IN THE WAR
     HE SUFFERS A STROKE 
1917 NOV. 15, DURKHEIM DIES

(FOR A COMPLETE BIO. SEE STEVEN LUKES, "EMILE DURKHEIM: HIS LIFE AND WORK. A HISTORICAL AND CRITICAL STUDY; STANFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 1973) "SOCIOLOGY MUST NOT BE A SIMPLE ILLUSTRATION OF READY-MADE AND DECEPTIVE TRUISMS; IT MUST FASHION DISCOVERIES WHICH CANNOT FAIL TO UPSET ACCEPTED NOTIONS." 1909 IDEAS DEVELOPED PRIOR TO 1888

I. SOCIOLOGY AS SCIENCE OF MORAL LIFE

A. USE OF ORGANIC ANALOGY
1. SOCIETY COMES PRIOR TO INDIVIDUAL
2. SOCIETY AS SOMETHING BEYOND EVERY PERSON
3. PRODUCTION OF COLLECTIVE CONSCIENCE
AS DURKHEIM STATES, "THE TOTALITY OF BELIEFS AND SENTIMENTS COMMON TO AVERAGE CITIZENS OF THE SAME SOCIETY FORMS A DETERMINATE SYSTEM WHICH HAS ITS OWN LIFE; ONE MAY CALL IT THE COLLECTIVEOR COMMON CONSCIENCE." ... "IT IS, IN EFFECT, INDEPENDENT OF THE PARTICULAR CONDITIONS IN WHICH INDIVIDUALS ARE PLACED; THEY PASS ON AND IT REMAINS." (PAGE 79-80 THE DIVISION OF LABOR IN SOCIETY.) 4. INDIVIDUAL AND COLLECTIVE CONSCIENCE WILL DIFFER

5. SOCIETY IS GREATER THAN THE SUM OF ITS PARTS THIS IS UNIQUE SOCIAL ORGANIZATION 6. SOCIOLOGY IS TO STUDY THE MORAL RULES AS PART OF THE SOCIAL ORGANIZATION. B. EARLY WRITINGS PRODUCE LASTING CONCERNS: 

1. IMPORTANCE OF IDEALS & MORAL UNITY FOR STABILITY
2. INDIVIDUALS ARE SHAPED BY SOCIETY & ARE ACTIVE
3. ATTACHMENT TO SOCIETY INVOLVES OBLIGATIONS, CONSTRAINTS AND COMMITMENT TO IDEALS (NORMS, VALUES, BELIEFS) 4. PROPERTIES OF SOCIETY, PARTICULARLY THE CONSCIENCE COLLECTIVE, CANNOT BE DEDUCE FROM INDIVIDUALS 5. FOUNDATIONS FOR THEORY OF ANOMIE

6. THEORY OF RELIGION
II. METHODOLOGY

SOCIAL FACTS

"But in reality there is in every society a certain group of phenomena which may be differentiated from those studied by the other natural sciences. When I fulfill my obligations as brother, husband, or citizen, when I execute my contracts, I perform duties which are defined, externally to myself and my acts, in law and in custom. Even if I conform to my own sentiments and I feel their reality subjectively, such reality is still objective, for I did not create them; I merely inherited them through my education." (pg. 1 Rules of Sociological Methods) CHARACTERIZED BY;

1. EXTERNALITY - THEY CONSTITUTE A REALITY SUI-GENERIS OUTSIDE OF ANY PARTICULAR INDIVIDUAL 2. CONSTRAINT - THEY POSSESS A POWER COERCION OVER THE INDIVIDUAL 3. GENERALITY - THEY ARE POTENTIALLY UNIVERSAL, DIFFUSED WITHIN A GROUP "Our definition will then include the whole relevant range of facts if we say: A social fact is every way of acting, fixed or not, capable of exercising on the individual an external constraint; or again, every way of acting which is general throughout a given society, while at the same time existing in its own right independent of its individual manifestations." SOCIAL FACTS SHOULD BE EXPLAINED IN TERMS OF OTHER SOCIAL FACTS

INSTITUTIONS ARE SOCIAL FACTS;
CRIME, SUICIDE

IS CRIME NORMAL?
FOUR TYPES OF SUICIDE
1. EGOISTIC
OUTGROWTH OF THE DIVISION OF LABOR AND THE "CULT OF INDIVIDUALISM" 2. ANOMIC
ALSO THE RESULT OF THE DIVISION OF LABOR, PROBLEMS IN THE STRUCTURE OF THE ORGANIC SYSTEM 3. ALTRUISTIC
AN ASPECT OF TRADITIONAL SOCIETIES OR TIGHTLY KNIT GROUPS; A BY-PRODUCT OF A STRONG CONSCIENCE COLLECTIVE 4. FATALISTIC
ASPECT OF OVERPOWERING SOCIAL CONTROL. YOU GIVE UP TO AUTHORITY SO COMPLETELY THE ONLY WAY OUT IS SUICIDE. IS THIS THE LAST ASPECT OF INDIVIDUALISM? NOT LIKELY, ALL INDIVIDUALISM IS GONE. SLAVE IN ANTIQUITY AND PERHAPS JEWS DURING THE HOLOCAUST? (found on page 276 as a footnote)

II. THE DIVISION OF LABOR IN SOCIETY.

INDUSTRIALIZED SOCIETY PRODUCES MIXED MESSAGES
HE IS LESS CONCERNED WITH THE QUESTION OF WHAT CONSTITUTES...
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