Sociolinguistics

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SOCIOLINGUISTICS
Chapter 1

A Scope of Sociolinguistics
According to Hudson, sociolinguistics is essentially a study of language as used in society. Language is very important and unique feature of culture because it talks about the behavior of people.  The society is represented by its language.

Society is totally depended on language.
If there is no language in society in society then the society will be considered as part of Stone Age. Sociolinguistics highlights the significance of language for society. The crux of sociolinguistics is society +language=sociolinguistics. Sociolinguistics and linguistics

There are many sociolinguistics who would also call themselves linguists. The question of who is socialist and who is not neither interesting nor important. Linguistics differs from sociolinguistics in taking account only the structure of language to the exclusion of the social context in which it is learned and use. The task of the linguistics is to work out the rules of language, after that sociolinguistics study any points at which these rules make context with society. Different alternative way of expressing the same thing , taken/chosen by different social group.(quality of sociolinguistics) Different societies use languages which show their behavior. In the current modern society, socio is discipline which is based on theological and empirical. In sociolinguistics language theory and language behaviorism are discussed: Example

Language theory:
Pashto uttered  aggressive
French language  politeness
This is theory but when we go to prove it become practical.
Theory + practical = thesis (sociolinguistics)
There is a two way relation between language and society: 1. On the base of language we infer culture.
2.On the base of culture we infer language.
Relationship between sociology and linguistics
Sociology:
It is a study of society (behaviorism, attitude, social norm, living style, ruling and relations etc). Linguistics:
The set pattern of language which includes syntax, semantics etc …

Linguistics talk about grammar (noun, pronoun,…) but sociolinguistics talk about the social use of these words. Example:
If a Urdu linguist teach Urdu to any foreigner (تم , آپ, تو).These are the thing which linguist tell him. But sociolinguistics will tell him how to use it in society. To some extent sociology and linguistics so side by side. A teacher should not only know the grammar but also to use it in different context. Usage and Use

Usage:
Talking about the prescribe rule of the language. This will be of major use for linguist. Use:
Practical or actual application of prescribe use, this will be of major use of sociolinguist. The use of language refers to the society which comes under society. If we talk about the use of language, it basically social use so we link up this social use with the sociology. When we talk about sociology we define one society to another. Stratification of Pakistani society:

A.Landlords
B.Bureaucrats
C.Businessmen
D.Politicians
E.Professional people
F.Peasants/ farmer
G.Beggars
All of these groups have different languages.
Everyone has his own language according to the level.
Sociolinguistics study the use of language in different context of society. 1.2 Sociolinguistic phenomena
An imaginary world
Pakistani society compare with such a society which actually do not exist. By comparing we come to know the relation of language with particular society. Every society has natural boundaries. These boundaries mean that no other people can come and join. Society and culture is affected by language when we used different language together (English+ Hindi ruin pet lang) Example: (may nay ik picture banaye hay)

Linguist cannot judge from which society it belongs.
To analyze a particular language we need to take it in isolation...
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