* Myanmar –an Introduction2
* Politic and Tourism 3
* Economic Development 5
* Conclusion 6
Myanmar Tourism Industry and Socio-economic changes
Tourism industry is the fastest growing sectors and can support the government in an economy. The politics of the country is very relative to the development of tourism and It brings both positive and negative effects to the host countries. In this report, what politics in Myanmar drive tourism development and impacts of tourism will be discussed.
Myanmar- an introduction
Myanmar is situated in the crossroad of China and India which are the world great civilizations. It is the largest country in South East Asia, which is rich in natural wildlife and cultural resources. 60% of the country is covered by rivers and the Ayeyarwady river is the life-blood of the country. The horseshoe-shaped mountain complex is the dominant the geographic features of Myanmar. Hkakabo Razi, 5881 meters height, is the highest peak in Southeast Asia. The population is over 60 million, and has eight major ethnic groups; more than 10 minorities’ ethnicity in each group. As Myanmar is home to various ethnic groups, the differences and colourful cultural, traditional way of life, festivals are very fantasizing. Myanmar is steeped in history and the legacy of various kingdoms. There are unique archaeological sites, ancient cultural edifices and traditional arts and crafts. So it is obvious that Myanmar has great tourist potential and attractions in many fields. But Myanmar tourism industry remains nevertheless a growing sector of the economy, compared to neighbouring countries.
1. Politics and Tourism
1.1 Recent Politics and Tourism History(1962-2009)
It is obvious that there is a strong relation between tourism and politics. People realised that in recent years and it became a distinct academic study (Cheong and Miller).For examples, the event of 11 September in 2001 in America caused political instability and effects on tourism. People argue that tourism contributes to the world’s peace and improves international understanding or not (Brown, 1989; D’ Amore, 1994). Tourism is shaped by political forces and it depends upon security and stability. Since 1962, Myanmar has been under controlled of the military government (U Nay Win). It became isolated nation, and all economic industries including tourism sector became state-owned. The visa validity was reduced to 24 hours, as a result, the tourism industry become shrink quickly. In 1990, the new military government came and the tourism market was authorized to open, foreign investments were allowed. Tourism is recognized as a significant economic activity by the tourism law, local and foreign private operators are allowed to run the hotels and tourism business. The new tourism and hotel law in 1993 is to support officially, set objectives related to the development of tourism.
In 1996, “Visit Myanmar Year” was introduced, officially opened the doors to tourists. Moreover, many infrastructures have been developed such as transportation, hotels, and recreation resorts. However, there have been many problems in developing tourism industry, * 200, 00 local people were forced to move without enough compensation * Forced labour are used in constructing infrastructures * Economic benefits serve only the military people
* Aung San Su Kyi advised tourist not to visit Burma and to wait the situation improves * Two foreign exchange rate; official rate of $1=6kyats(local) ,real exchange rate of round about $1=1000kyats * On-going conflicts with ethnic minorities
Due to the unequal politic activities such as keeping supporters under regular surveillance and...