Social and Ethical Issue in I.T

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According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics:
Social issues are matters of concern to governments and the community. They reflect aspects of society, its people and institutions that people want to, and can, do something about.

Ethical issues in IT. differ from general ethical issues in a variety of ways. Parker, Swope and Baker note that ethical problems involving computers pose a special challenge, for a number of different reasons. Various ethical issues are: 1.Ethical dilemmas

2.Plagiarism
3.Piracy
4.Hacking
5.Computer crime
6.Viruses
7.Ergonomics/health issues
8.Job displacement/work pressures imposed on computer professionals 9.Digital divide
10.Gender

According to the St James Ethics Centre:
Ethics is seeking to answer the question “what ought one to do?”

Social and Ethical Issues in IT (Information Technology)
This program takes viewers to where information technology meets everyday life, offering six self-contained stories within three specific themes: Chapter 1) Power and Privacy, includes "Privacy Threat" and "Power to the People," which looks at Data Mining, SPAM, Cookies, and Identity Theft; Chapter 2) Control and Security, includes "Security Gets Smarter" and "Copyright," which looks at code-makers, code-breakers or 'hackers,' Linux (open access code) and Watermarking; Chapter 3) Trust and Accuracy, includes "In Search of Truth" and "Accuracy Counts, " which looks at Freedom of Information and Safety-Critical software. The program concludes with a comprehensive six-point guide to ethical decision-making. VEA Productions, Inc. 07DR JSCA 30 min.

1.1 Reliability

Reliability refers to the operation of hardware, the design of software, the accuracy ofdata or the correspondence of data with the real world. Data may be unreliable if it is entered incorrectly or if it becomes outdated. For example, a medical record that becomes dissociated from the patient it refers to becomes unreliable. The reliability of machines, software and data determines our confidence in their value. 1.2 Integrity

Integrity refers to correspondence of data with itself, at its creation. Data lacks integrity when it has been changed accidentally or tampered with. For example, a hacker might change driver licence data resulting in arrests of innocent people. Security

Security refers to the protection of hardware, software, machines and networks from unauthorized access, alteration or destruction. Security measures include restricted access to machines and networks and encryption of information. The degree of security of information systems determines s~ciety's confidence in the information contained in the systems.

1.4 Privacy and anonymity

Privacy is the ability of individuals and groups to determine for themselves when, how and to what extent information about themselves is shared with others. At its extreme, privacy becomes anonymity, which might be called for in some contexts but is dangerous in others. For example, discussion of a delicate subject might require anonymity, or at least privacy. On the other hand, anonymity could also conceal the perpetrators of criminal, terrorist or computer hacking acts.

1.5 Authenticity

Authenticity means establishing the user's identity beyond reasonable doubt. Authenticating the user is crucial in many situations, particularly in business and legal matters. A simple example of authentication is user login onto a network. A more advanced example would be the use of encrypted digital signatures in a business transaction.

1.6 Intellectual property

Intellectual property includes ideas, discoveries, writings, works of art, software,collections and presentations of data. Copyrights, trademarks and patents legally protectintellectual property, but easy and accurate duplication methods made available by IT canundermine such protections. On the other hand, the same methods create opportunity forinexpensive dissemination of...
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