TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONSiii
2. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF SMALL RUMINANT TUBERCULOSIS3
2.1. Global distribution of small ruminant tuberculosis3
2.2. Risk factors3
2.2.1 Agent factors3
2.2.2 Management and Ecological Factors4
2.2.3 Host factors5
3. STATUS OF SMALL RUMINANT TUBERCULOSIS IN ETHIOPIA7
4. ZOONOTIC IMPORTANCE OF SMALL RUMINANT TUBERCULOSIS9
4.1. Zoonotic significance9
4.2. Risk factors of zoonotic tuberculosis from small ruminants10
4.3. Reverse zoonosis11
5. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS12
In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful (1:1)
I owe great deal of gratitude to my advisor Dr.Gezahegn Mamo for his intellectual guidance, provision of materials and information, and time devotion to correct this manuscript.
My sincere gratitude also goes to my mam, Shamiya Ahmed and my dad, Kalif Umar; May Allah shower His mercy upon them as they did with me when I was a child. My earnest gratitude is to my wife, Rahima Umar, for her genuine advice and moral support throughout my study period. I am greatly indebted to my parents-in-law, Umar Abdo and Safiya Mahammed, for their great support.
Words, hardly express my heartfelt gratitude to my lifelong best friend, Abdi Mume for his indispensable encouragement, financial and moral support in my entire study period.
I also need this opportunity to extend my acknowledgement to, Kelbessa Bahiru, Taha Junda my uncle Abdala Abdo, and my brother Adem Kalif for their moral and financial support.
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
CIDTcomparative intradermal tuberculin test
HELIMEXHashim Nur’s Ethiopia Live Animal and Meat Exporter MBTCMycobacterium tuberculosis complex
PCRpolymerase chain reaction
PPDpurified protein derivative
SITSpoligotype (Shared) International Type
Tuberculosis (TB) in goat and sheep is caused by members of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex predominantly by Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium caprae and few caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Epidemiological studies indicated that tuberculosis in goat and sheep has a wide global distribution and has been reported in various countries of the world. In Ethiopia, bovine TB has been known to be endemic in cattle; however, the status of TB in goats and sheep has not been well studied in spite of their close contact with cattle. Few studies carried out so far indicated the existence of TB in small ruminants with low level of prevalence and Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated from goats which indicate a potential risk of transmission of M. tuberculosis between humans and goats. The aim of this review is to assess the prevalence, risk factors and zoonotic significance of small ruminant tuberculosis in Ethiopia. Research reports on the epidemiology of the disease in sheep and goat, and the existing information on its zoonotic implication have been reviewed in this paper. Finally, recommendations are forwarded taking into account the situation of small ruminant TB in Ethiopia.
Key words: Epidemiology, Ethiopia, Small ruminants, Tuberculosis, Zoonosis
In many developing countries, small ruminants are the “poor man’s cow”, providing milk but also meat, hides and wool (Javed et al., 2009). Ethiopia has one of the largest resources of goats and sheep among African countries, with an estimated number of 21.9 million goat and 25.9 million sheep (FAOSTAT, 2009). Goats and sheep contribute significantly to the economy and food security of the poor farmers in the country. In spite of the large population and potential use of small ruminants the production system is affected by feed shortage, poor genetic makeup of the animals, and wide spread occurrence...