Six Fundamentals of Fitness

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Six Fundamentals of Fitness Training
Physical fitness is a state of well-being with low risk of premature health problems and energy to participate in a variety of physical activities. –President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports (1997) According to the US Government, the word “fitness” defies concise definition but is best explained by this chart: Physical FitnessSkills

PhysiologicalHealth-RelatedSkill-RelatedSports
MetabolicBody CompositionAgilityTeam
MorphologicalCardiovascular FitnessBalanceIndividual
Bone IntegrityFlexibilityCoordinationLifetime
Muscular EndurancePower
Muscle StrengthSpeed
Reaction Time
Obviously, there are a number of areas you should work on to improve your fitness. Most individual fitness training programs concentrate on one or more of these areas. The ultimate goal(s) of the participant dictate the areas of focus. But no program is complete unless it addresses the six fundamentals of fitness training: 1.Cardio

2.Flexibility
3.Strength
4.Muscular endurance
5.Body composition
6.Skill training
Cardiovascular fitness
Occasionally called cardiorespiratory fitness, this is the ability of your heart, lungs, and blood vessels to deliver oxygen to your muscles during prolonged physical activity. You can track your progress two ways: perceived level of exertion or percentage of maximum heart rate. General guidelines for cardio in FITT format:

Frequency
3 to 5 days per week
Intensity50 to 80% of your maximum heart rate
Time20 to 60 minutes per day
TypeVary the exercises to avoid adaptation

Flexibility
This aspect of fitness training relates to the pain-free range of motion of your joints. Football players (like all athletes) need flexibility to avoid injuries. If your day-to-day activity – including your fitness and skill training – is hampered by a lack of flexibility, you risk injury. Flexibility training should include:

A general-purpose warm-up that takes joints...
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