Shastriya Sangeet

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  • Topic: Hindustani classical music, Carnatic music, Indian classical music
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Hindustani classical music

Hindustani classical music (Hindi: हिन्दुस्तानी शास्त्रीय संगीत्, Urdu: کلاسیکی موسیقی‎) is the Hindustani or North Indian style of Indian classical music found throughout the northern Indian subcontinent. The style is sometimes called North Indian classical music or Shāstriya Sangīt. It is a tradition that originated in Vedic ritual chants and has been evolving since the 12th century CE, primarily in what is now North India, Pakistan and Bangladesh and to some extent in Nepal and Afghanistan. Today, it is one of the two subgenres of Indian classical music, the other being Carnatic music, the classical tradition of South India. Contents [hide]

1 Characteristics
2 History
2.1 Sanskritic tradition
2.2 Medieval period: Persian influence
2.3 Modern era
3 Principles of Hindustani music
4 Types of compositions
4.1 Dhrupad
4.2 Khyal
4.3 Tarana
4.4 Tappa
4.5 Thumri
4.6 Ghazal
5 Instrumental music
6 See also
7 References
8 Further reading
9 External links
Characteristics

The tradition was born out of a cultural synthesis of several musical traditions: the Vedic chant tradition, dating back to more than three thousand years ago,the ancient Persian tradition of Musiqi-e assil, and various folk traditions prevalent in the region. It is traditional for performers who have reached a distinguished level of achievement to be awarded titles of respect; Hindus are usually referred to as pandit and Muslims as ustad. An aspect of Hindustani music going back to Sufi times is the tradition of religious neutrality: Muslim ustads may sing compositions in praise of Hindu deities, and vice versa. Around the 12th century, Hindustani classical music diverged from what eventually came to be identified as Carnatic classical music. The central notion in both these systems is that of a melodic mode or raga, sung to a rhythmic cycle or tala. The tradition dates back to the ancient Samaveda, (sāma meaning "ritual chant"), which deals with the norms for chanting of srutis or hymns such as the Rig Veda. These principles were refined in the musical treatises Natya Shastra, by Bharata (2nd–3rd century CE), and Dattilam (probably 3rd–4th century CE). In medieval times, the melodic systems were fused with ideas from Persian music, particularly through the influence of Sufi composers like Amir Khusro, and later in the Moghul courts. Noted composers such as Tansen flourished, along with religious groups like the Vaishnavites. After the 16th century, the singing styles diversified into different gharanas patronized in different princely courts. Around 1900, Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande consolidated the musical structures of Hindustani classical music, called ragas, into a number of thaats. Indian classical music has seven basic notes with five interspersed half-notes, resulting in a 12-note scale. Unlike the 12-note scale in Western music, the base frequency of the scale is not fixed, and intertonal gaps (temperament) may also vary; however, with the gradual replacement of the sarangi by the harmonium, an equal tempered scale is increasingly used. The performance is set to a melodic pattern called a raga characterized in part by specific ascent (aroha) and descent (avaroha) sequences, which may not be identical. Other characteristics include "king" (vadi) and "queen" (samavadi) notes and characteristic phrases (pakad). In addition each raga has its natural register (ambit) and portamento (meend) rules. Performances are usually marked by considerable improvisation within these norms. [edit]History

Music was first formalized in India in connection with preserving the sruti texts, primarily the four vedas, which are seen as apaurasheya (meaning "not created by man"). Not only was the text important, but also the manner in which they had been enunciated by the immortals. Prosody and chanting were thus of great importance, and were enshrined in the two vedangas (bodies of knowledge) called shiksha (pronunciation,...
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