SENSORY EVALUATION OF FOOD|
A LABORATORY REVIEW OF THE SENSORY EVALUTION OF FOOD USING A VARIETY OF TESTS: PAIRED COMPARISION, TRIANGLE AND HEDONIC RANKING, OVER SIX SAMPLES. ALL SO DISCUSSING POTENTIAL WAYS TO IMPROVE ANALYSIS AND SENSORY EVALUATION.| |
7TH FEBRUARY 2013
Food acceptability is largely determined by the five human senses: sight, taste, smell, hearing and touch. Knowledge of food acceptability is important for many reasons including the health, marketing, sales and development of food products. For these reasons, food sensory evaluation tests have been developed, evaluated and used in all areas of the food industry. Each method of sensory evaluation has advantages and disadvantages which will be discussed. Sensory evaluation tests conducted in this experiment include: Paired Comparison, Hedonic, Triangle and Ranking on a range of food samples. Propersensory evaluation conduction, data collection and analysis will be reviewed as well as the results from the conducted sensory evaluation tests. The assessment will address potential ways for improved analysis and how sensory evaluation tests have proven useful in many studies and the food industry.|
All five of the human senses help people in the evaluation of food and in determining whether or not they will consume it or enjoy it. Sight usually has its first interaction with food. It allows for people to see the colour, shape, size and any maladies a food may have. Colour can be used by people to determine how ripe their produce is to how concentrated their beverage may be. Smell plays a role in deciding what a person eats and is a far more sensitive chemical receptor than the tongue; it can be grouped into 5 categories: spicy, flowery, fruity, resinous and foul. Odours are detected by the olfactory epithelium and become stronger when volatile molecules become more concentrated. Taste (gustation) is one of the most important factors in determining food selection; it is detected by the tongue when saliva surrounded food particles touch gustatory cells that send signals to the brain which differentiate tastes. There are 5 basic types of taste: sweet, sour, bitter, salty and savoury/umani, all of which perform an important role in food selection. The umani taste is due to the detection of the carboxylate anion of glutamic acid, a naturally occurring amino acid common in meats, cheese , broth, stock and other protein foods. The tip of the tongue is most responsive to sweetness. The base (back) of the tongue is most responsive to bitterness and the centre of the tongue appears to be relatively insensitive. Touching food with fingers or the mouth can channel many characteristics of a food to a person including: texture, consistency, temperature, astringency and chemethesis. Finally, hearing sounds associated with food help to determine certain qualities of foods such as crunchiness, liquidity and temperature. All these senses are important factors in food selection and perceived quality. (Brown 2008) In the food laboratory, the quality of food refers to characteristics in foods that can be subjectively evaluated by human senses. Physical and chemical properties of food are factors that measure food quality; however, measurements of these properties cannot always be quantitative or relevant when it comes to consumer perception and satisfaction. For these reason, methods of food sensory evaluation have been developed for more subjective ways to measure food qualities. Sensory evaluations include 2 types of subjective testing: analytical and affective tests. Analytical tests are used to detect differences and can involve using descriptive terms to differentiate food qualities. Affective tests evaluate personal preferences of individuals evaluating specific food products (Bethard 2008). The simplest form of sensory evaluation that can be...