Semantic

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  • Topic: Phrase, Phrase structure rules, Noun phrase
  • Pages : 15 (1486 words )
  • Download(s) : 71
  • Published : May 21, 2013
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So far…
• General Approach
– Universal Grammar (UG) / Language Instinct

Phrase Structure

• Data
– native speakers’ i t iti ti k ’ intuitions ( (acceptability j d t bilit judgments) t )

• Resulting Theory of Grammar
– words, phrases, categories for words and phrases (e.g., Nouns, Verbs; Noun Phrases, Verb Phrases) (basic concepts any theory of grammar must have in order to capture the data) 1 2

Next:
• The internal structure of phrases and how we can represent it. • H How phrases are put t h t together to create th t t sentences.

Phrase Structure
My very funny friend in Russia will go to Det Adv A N P N Aux V P a concert tomorrow. t t Det N Adv My very funny friend in Russia NP → Det AP N PP NP → (Det) (AP*) N (PP*) 3 4

Phrase Internal Structure
• why (AP*):
– My talented handsome funny friend A A A – My friend

Phrase Internal Structure
very funny AP→ Mod A AP→ (Mod) A (PP) • why (PP):
– proud (of himself)

• why (PP*):
– My friend in Russia with a convertible PP PP – My friend 5

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Phrase Internal Structure
[in Russia] PP P NP PP (Mod) P (NP) [tomorrow] AdvP Adv AdvP (Mod) Adv (very) infrequently 7

Phrase Internal Structure
[go to a concert tomorrow] VP→ V PP AdvP VP→ (AdvP) V (NP*) (PP*) (AdvP*) why NP* : give Mary the book NP NP why PP*: go to a concert in his convertible PP PP why AdvP*: go to a concert briefly tomorrow AdvP AdvP 8

Phrase Internal Structure
[My very funny friend in Russia will go to a concert tomorrow] S NP (Aux) VP

Phrase Structure Rules for English
S → NP (Aux) VP NP → (Det) (AP*) N (PP*) VP → (AdvP) V (NP*) (PP*) (AdvP*) PP → (Mod) P (NP) AP → (Mod) A (PP) AdvP → (Mod) Adv (PP)

[S [NP My very funny friend in Russia] will [VP go to a concert tomorrow]]

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Embedding 1
• • • • • A mouse A mouse in a house A mouse in a house on a street A mouse in a house on a street with a lamp p A mouse in a house on a street with a lamp without a switch • • • •

Embedding 2
Bill saw Mary Harry said that Bill saw Mary Rita heard that Harry said that Bill saw Mary Marvin whispered that Rita heard that Harry said that Bill saw Mary

• What’s embedded in what? • Prepositional Phrases can be embedded inside Noun Phrases, to make bigger and bigger NPs. 11

• What’s embedded in what? • Sentences can be embedded inside bigger sentences. 12

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Embedding 3 Relative Clauses
• • • • The cat The cat that ate the rat The cat that ate the rat that lived in the barn The cat that ate the rat that lived in the barn that sat near the house that Jack built

We can mix and match ALL of these various embedding mechanisms • If Bill distinctly heard that a mouse in the house that sits on the edge of the forest will most likely eat a frog from Moline and if Taras Bulba believes that this will threaten the stability of the Western empire, then pink panthers with shining eyes and split lips may decide that it is time that they took matters into their own limp paws!

• What is embedded in what? • Relative Clauses inside Noun Phrases; to make bigger and bigger Noun Phrases. 13

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Phrase Structure Rules for English
S → NP (Aux) VP NP → (Det) (AP*) N (PP*) VP → (AdvP) V (NP*) (PP*) (AdvP*) PP → (Mod) P (NP) AP → (Mod) A (PP) AdvP → (Mod) Adv (PP)

Recursion
[NP The cat [PP on [NP the mat [PP in [NP the bedroom [PP next to [NP the bathroom…]]]]]]] NP → (Det) (AP*) N (PP*) PP → (Adv) P NP

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Two key ideas
Phrase Structure

• Recursive Rules:
– rules that can apply again and again to their own outputs

• Hierarchical structure:
– recursive rules can yield bigger and bigger phrases

Beads on a string

Hierarchical structure

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Phrase Structure Tree
S NP Aux VP

Phrase Structure Tree
• Branch: a line connecting two parts of a tree • Node: the terminal point (the beginning or the end) of a branch • Label: the name given to a node (e.g., N, VP, S, etc.) 19 20

D

AP A

N

PP P NP

V P

PP NP D N...
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