HUMAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
1. Growth and Development Defined 1.1 Growth refers to change in body structure. This includes increase in size of muscles, size of the brain, which includes primary and secondary changes. 1.2 Development is a progressive series of orderly coherent changes (Hinlock, 1974). 2. Principles of Development 2.1 Development follows a definite pattern. It follows the cephalocondal and proximodutal laws. 2.2 Development involves changes such as the change of milk teeth from permanent teeth, the change of height and weight at different phases of development. 2.3 Development is a continuous process. It continues from the moment of conception until the child reaches maturity. The development is both physical and mental. 2.4 There are individual differences in development. There are plenty of evidences to show in scientific studies of children that the rate of growth is consistent. Those who developed rapidly at first will continue to do so, while those developments who were slow will continue to develop slowly. 2.5 Development is sequential with similar and special functions. These are sequences in development which cannot be changed. For example in motor growth, sitting precedes standing and in language development, babbling comes before the utterance of syllabus. It explains the learning of phylogenetic functions utilized in ontogenetic functions. 2.6 Development is integrated. The individual grows and develops in his totality. 2.7 Development is a product of hereditary and environment. The extent to which an individual grows and develops is dependent on both of his nature and nurture. 3. Implications of the Foregoing Principles in Education 3.1 Teachers, parents, and others who work with children should respect differences among children and youth. 3.2 The predictability of the patterns of development should guide curriculum makers and teachers in the sequencing and choosing of learning materials. 3.3 It helps us know what to expect and when...
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