Rate and Sequence of Development

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1.1 Explain the sequence and rate of each aspect of development that would normally be expected in children and young people from birth – 19 years.

Physical 0 -3

When a baby is born they are unable to hold their own head up however they will tilt their head towards light or noise within their first months. When spoken to they will react by looking at or watching you. As they develop they will be able to support their own head and wave their arms around and bring them together, the same with the legs. They will be able to roll from front to back and are able to fully support themselves when hands are flat on the floor. They may also be able to sit unsupported for a period of time with their back straight. At approximately 9 months they will be able to sit unsupported on the floor without toppling over and may have also started to crawl and/or pull themselves up into standing position using the furniture around them. From this they will be able to sit down from standing position and may be able to stand alone and/or take a few brief steps. They may also start to feed themselves using their fingers or with a spoon. From being able to take brief steps they will then begin to walk independently and sit on a child sized chair. They will also start to turn pages of a book, build towers using two building blocks, make marks on paper and hold their own cup while drinking. At 18 months a child will be able to walk confidently and be making attempts to run, able to balance in squatting position, pushes and pulls toys/child sized furniture and roll and throw a ball, with attempts to kick them. By the age of 2 a child will be able to run confidently, walk up and down stairs with the assistance of a hand rail, ride large wheeled toys but not peddling and kick stationary balls. At the age of 3 children should be able to peddle large wheeled toys while steering, walk up and down stairs confidently, kick moving balls and climb on small apparatus and complete jigsaw puzzles.

Social and Emotional 0 -3

When a child is first born they a totally dependent on others. By the time they reach one month old they will start to smile and respond to sounds heard within the environment by making their own sounds and noises. As babies develop they will show feelings of fear and excitement and will react when their parents/carers leave the room. They will do this by crying as they do not understand that they will return, and will react positively when a parent/carer is caring, soothing, and kind. This links with Piagets stages of development. He believed that children pass through 4 stages of cognitive development, these being stage 1 sensory motor, stage 2 preoperational, stage 3 concrete operations and stage 4 formal operations. Piagets stage 1 states that babies use their sense to learn. They can also see things from their own point of view. They do not know that something they can’t see still exists such as when their parent/carer leaves the room. Soon after this babies will reach out to be held and show a wider range of feeling more vocally. They will start to laugh, screech and coo with delight but may cry easily at the sight of strangers and unfamiliar faces. Increasing mobility will allow them to approach familiar people and they may start to feed themselves with support. By the age of 1 a child’s sense of self identity increases and so their self esteem and self confidence develop. They will start to play alongside other children for increasing periods of time and will wave goodbye when prompted. Children develop the sense of exploration from a young age but need their parents/carers close by. They will start to show a keen interest in activities that their peers are participating in, however they may start to show jealousy of the attention and toys that carers give to another child. Emotions will alternate between wanting to do things alone, wanting to do things with other children and depending on their parents/carers. Between...
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