Outcome 1: Understand the expected pattern of development for children and young people from birth – 19 years
Assessment Criteria 1 – Explain the sequence and rate of each aspect of development from birth – 19 Years. Children and young people develop in the following ways:
As they grow they progress from being dependant on parents and carers to being able to make rational and informed decisions.
The rate of development can depend on a range of factors including a genetic controlled process known as maturation or as a result of environmental factors and learning but most commonly involves an interaction between the two. It is human nature to have the ability to learn from our environment and adapt to our surroundings.
When looking at how children and young people develop it is usual to divide development into the following five areas of development which are often co-dependent, I will discuss each separately: A
Physical Development - is where children increase in all physical skills including * Fine motor skills - this is the ability to perform small, accurate movements i.e. using their hands to be able to eat, draw, dress, play and write among many other things, * Gross motor skills - is the ability to move the whole body well using large groups of muscles to sit, stand, walk and run, * Locomotive Movement - is keeping balance, changing positions and walking correctlyThe physical development area allows children to become more independent.
| Sequence of Development
| At birth babies are unable to control their movements but are born with many reflexes often linked to survival for instance: * Swallowing and suckling – to ensure they can feed. * Rooting – If mouth or cheek is touched a baby will move its head towards a teat or nipple, to help the baby find milk. * Grasp – a baby will automatically put their fingers around an item which is placed on the palm of their hand. * Startle – babies arms will move outwards and fists clench when they hear a sudden loud noise or see a sudden bright light. * Walking and Standing – when babies are held upright with their feet on a firm surface they usually make stepping movements.
| 1 Month
| By 1 month babies look less curled up and startle less.
| 3 Months
| At this stage, most babies have some control of their muscles and nervous system and can lift and turn their heads. Usually by about five months, most babies can roll over.
| 6 Months
| By 6 months babies can lift their feet and hands in the air, (to look like they are parachuting) They usually still take a nap in the morning and afternoon and can sit with support, hold their head up for short periods of time, and can roll from their side to their stomach. They start to eat and sleep at regular times, eating three meals a day and drink from bottles at various times. They may start using a cup and a spoon to feed themselves and can sit alone. They crawl with their stomach touching the floor, and they can creep on their hands and knees. By six months, their vision is more fully developed. By eight months, they can reach for and hold objects. They can pick up objects with their thumb and forefinger and let objects go (drop things). They start to throw things. They pull up to stand, they stand holding onto furniture, and can walk when led.
| At this stage most babies can crawl or are finding other ways of getting around and be mobile. For example bum shuffling. They can sit up without support and spend lots of time sitting and playing and picking up and handling objects and putting them in their mouths.
| 1 Years
| By the time they are 12 months old, most babies can weigh three times what they weighed at birth and gain about an inch per month in length. The infant at one year may be between 26–30 inches long. They are very mobile and may be walking or on the verge of walking and can stand whilst holding on to...
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