Safety Measures of Chemical Industry

Topics: Occupational safety and health, Ammonia, Urea Pages: 49 (8672 words) Published: February 6, 2013

In the present global industrial scenario, for any industry to be successful, it is essential to inculcate safety culture,
consciousness in health and environment aspects in each
personnel of an organisation.
IFFCO-AONLA has identified this as a major thrust area since beginning and is continuously putting efforts for improvement in the Safety, Health and Environment Management.

N.C. Nigam,
A.K. Maheshwari,
N.P. Rao
Indian Farmers Fertiliser Co operative
Ltd., Aonla Unit

IFFCO’s continuous best efforts to implement Safety, Health and Environment Systems in the organization have been
appreciated and recognised by several Government and safety
regulating bodies.
This paper is a brief presentation of various facets of Safety and Health in chemical Industries with a special focus at
IFFCO–Aonla unit.
The significance of Safety & Health in chemical industries has been a vital issue in achieving productivity and an edge in the competitive world. This paper is an effort to present the various factors governing the safety and Health of chemical industries with a special focus on IFFCO Aonla Unit – the flagship Ammonia-Urea Complex of Indian Farmers Fertiliser Coop. Ltd.

Risk Of Accidents And / Or Harmful Exposures : Areas of Concern i) Dangerous Materials ii) Hazards of Pressure Vessels iii) Hazardous Chemical Reactions iv) Hazardous of Unit Operations v) Flammable Gases, Vapours And Dust Hazards vi) Health Hazards vii) Hazards due to corrosion viii) Entry in To Confined Spaces ix) Working with Pipelines x) Plant Alteration and modification xi) Sampling and Gauging xii) Hazards due to Instrument Failures. Dangerous Materials

i)Explosives ii) Gases iii) Inflammable Liquids iv) Inflammable Solids v) Oxidising substances vi) Toxic and Infectious substances vii)Radio Active Substances viii)Corrosive Substances ix)Miscellaneous Dangerous Substances

Hazards Of Pressure Vessels


Anomaly 1


eaction rate


eaction rate

eaction rate

1.Leakage or Bursting of Pressure Vessels 2.Design defects 3.Failure of Relief Systems 4.Lack of hydraulic testing. 5. Lack of Proper Instrumentation or Instrumentation Failure 6.Lack of N.D.Tests 7.Corrosion of Vessels. 8. Lack of routine inspections 9. Attempt of Pneumatic testing Hazardous Chemical Reactions

Understanding about the behaviours of reactions and adopting precautionary and emergency measures

Anomaly 2


Hazards of Unit operations
Understanding the hazards inherent in each unit operation and adopting precautionary and emergency measures. examples



Surface Fouling & Leakage,
Miscalculation in scaling, Mixing of
fluids etc.
Dust Explosions, Dust release, etc.

Flammable Gases, Vapours And Dust Hazards

Identification of potential areas, where possibility of flammable mixture are possible. Efforts to avoid hazardous mixtures, by inert gas purging and other methods. Declaring hazard zones and providing flame proof electrical fittings and equipments. Providing Explosion Vents in spaces with possibility of air-vapour mixtures. Explosive meter testing.

Providing adequate fire control devices.
Providing arrangements to avoid static sparks. Etc.

Health Hazards

Identification of potential health hazards.
Assessment of levels of physical and chemical health hazards. Control of hazards by various techniques
Adequate awareness among the workers.
Periodic medical examination of the workers.
Personal protection for occasional exposures.
Proper hygiene and decontamination facilities. etc.

Hazards Due To Corrosion
• Weakening and falling of structures and sheds.
• Falling of workers from height due to breaking of raised platforms, hand rails, toe boards, stairs and ladders.
• Spills...
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