Introduction to air safety:
Aircrafts have become more advanced and fast, but they are drastically affected by ignorance and design incapability. However these structures can fly with more than 200 passengers and heavy cargo, but when they crash, they take away with them many lives and damage valuable property. To prevent such loses several aviation safety agencies like EASA(European Aviation Safety Agency) and FAA(Federal Aviation Administration) have been functioning. These agencies implement and monitor safety rules for aircrafts. They also certify and approve organizations involved in the design, manufacture and maintenance of aeronautical products. Safety of an aircraft depends on every smallest possible detail of it. For designing a safer passenger aircraft a lot of investigation has to be done on flight failures, to prevent such failures. There are four main aspects considered while designing an aircraft: Aerodynamics, Propulsion, Structures and materials, Stability and control.
An overview on the design of a fixed wing aircraft:
The structure of an aircraft is configured as follows: A fuselage is a long cylindrical body with tapered ends to make its shape aerodynamically smooth. Fuselage carries flight crew, passengers, payload, fuel and engine. Fuselage also holds a large wing which provides sufficient lifting force to the aircraft due to the shape of its cross section (aerofoil). This large wing has ailerons to control rolling motion. The vertical stabilizers present at the rear end of the aircraft, stabilizes the yaw motion and horizontal stabilizers stabilizes the pitch. Elevators are mounted to the horizontal stabilizers and it controls the pitch of the aircraft. Engines provide the trust required for the aircraft. The landing gear is a set of wheels that supports the plane on ground. Control system of an aircraft: Yoke controls the pitch and roll motion of an aircraft. Rudder pedals control the rudder and...