Md. Saeed Anwar Student Id.: 091641 Sociology Discipline Khulna University Khulna- 9208
Introduction Poverty economic condition in which one is unable to enjoy a minimum standard of living. It is a state of existing in amounts that are too small to buy the basic necessities of life. The visible effects of poverty are malnutrition, ill health, poor housing conditions, and illiteracy. The impoverished people suffer from unemployment, underemployment and lack of access to resources that restrict their opportunities to earn living. The causes of poverty are rooted in the complex web of cultural arbitrariness and demographic, economic, social, and political and various other natural factors such as floods, cyclones and droughts. Geographically, Bangladesh is a small country with ethnically much more homogenous population than many other countries in South Asia. Nonetheless, historically it is marked with considerable regional differences in dialect, custom, agrarian relations and social development. Although the presence and persistence of differences in human development indicators in the country are often discussed, regional differences in income and other economic indicators are less known and talked about. Bangladesh now has one of the fastest rates of poverty reduction in South Asia. In 1991, 57 percent of Bangladesh’s population was living below the poverty line. By 2000 this figure came down to 49 percent. Over the period 2000 to 2005, the poverty rate further declined to 40 percent with around six million people lifted out of poverty (GOB, 2011). Poverty Poverty, as normally defined, means that the consumption or income level of a person falls below a certain threshold necessary to meet basic needs. The most frequently-used measure of poverty is based on income or consumption proxies. Poverty is a condition in which a person or community is deprived of, and or lacks the essentials for a minimum standard of well-being and life. Poverty is the result of economic, political and social processes that interact with each other and frequently reinforce each other in ways that exacerbate the deprivation in which poor people live. Poverty refers to the condition of not having the means to afford basic human needs such as clean, nutrition, health care, clothing and shelter. Poverty is a state of want and hopelessness. It is a serious concern for everyday concern. It exists everywhere, but it is most crucial in developing countries like Bangladesh. United Nations, 2002 define poverty as-
“the total absence of opportunities, accompanied by high levels of undernourishment, hunger, illiteracy, lack of education, physical and mental ailments, emotional and social instability, unhappiness, sorrow and hopelessness for the future. Poverty is also characterized by a chronic shortage of economic, social and political participation, relegating individuals to exclusion as social beings, preventing access to the benefits of economic and social development and thereby limiting their cultural development (yahoo answer, 2012)”
Poverty consists in the lack of certain basic capabilities of the human beings the capabilities to live a healthy active life free of avoidable morbidity and premature mortality, the capability to live with dignity, with adequate clothing and shelter etc. The World Bank define poverty as “The most commonly used way to measure poverty is based on incomes. A person is considered poor if his or her income level falls below some minimum level necessary to meet basic needs. This minimum level is usually called the "poverty line". What is necessary to satisfy basic needs varies across time and societies. Therefore, poverty lines vary in time and place, and each country uses lines which are appropriate to its level of development, societal norms and values. (BBC, 2012)”
Rural poverty Rural poverty refers to...