Ruminant Fluid

Only available on StudyMode
  • Download(s) : 50
  • Published : April 21, 2013
Open Document
Text Preview
Tanya
2012
Ruminant fluid lab
Tanya
2012
Ruminant fluid lab

Lab report Ruminant fluid
Tanya
Zoo Physiology
31.10.2012
Zoo phy Zoo physiologysiology

Lab report Ruminant fluid
Tanya Marlene Tysnes
Zoo Physiology
31.10.2012
Zoo phy Zoo physiologysiology

Introduction
Ruminants - Grass-eating (herbivorous) mammals with a paunch with micro-organisms that digest cellulose and other polysaccharides from plant sources. Most animals lack the enzyme, that is necessary to digest cellulose from plants and therefore dependent on microorganisms. The temperature of the rumen is approx. 39 degrees, the pH is approx. 6.5 and is anaerobic conditions. The food is present in the rumen for 9 to 12 hours and during this period bacteria and protozoa hydrolyze cellulose to the disaccharide cellobiose and free glucose molecules. Glucose is fermented by bacteria to volatile fatty acids (acetate, butyric acid) is taken up by the bloodstream of the animal and this is the main energy source, and also provides carbon dioxide and methane. Microorganisms also produce vitamins and amino acids that the animal need. If ruminants suddenly gets a lot of grain in the diet (that are high) will lactic acid bacteria produce large amounts of lactic acid (lactate) that acidify the rumen and kill the normal bacteria, a condition called acidosis. By examination the rumen content, we can get an accurate digestion in the rumen, and the samples of the rumen content must be evaluated within 1-2 hours after collection.

Materials and methods
In this lab we are going to do following work. First a sensory examination where we examine the color, consistency, odour and admixture of a sample with rumen content, which was kept in a thermos flask for examination. Then we filtered the sample of the rumen content through gauze prior to the examination. We used the filtered sample to determine the pH by using a diagnostic strip, and to determine of amylolytic activity by place 3 test tubes in a rack and pipette 1 ml of 0,3 % starch solution into each test tube. After this we put 10 drops into the first tube of rumen content, 20 drops into the second tube and 20 drops of distilled water into the third, and use the last tube of water just for control. We gently mix the test tubes and incubate them in a constant temperature chamber at 39 degrees for 20 minutes. Then we let the test tubes cool down to the laboratory temperature and add 1-2 drops of Lugol solution into each test tube and gently mix it again. The reason for this is to judge the amylolytic activity according to the color of the test tubes. In the third part, we preliminary the evaluation of protozoa density. First by pipette a large drop of the filtered rumen fluid on the slide, this to examine it under low and high magnification. Then we took 10 ul of rumen content and add 100 ul of 0,1% methylene blue solution into the test tube and gently mix it for about 3 minutes.

Figure 1; Fuchs-Rosenthal counting chamber
The last part in this lab, we take a look of the morphological examination of protozoa by mixing 1 ml of the filtered rumen contents with 1 ml of Lugol solution in a test tube. Then mix it gently for 1-2 minutes and put a large drop of this on a slide and examine under the microscope and count the different of entodiniomorphid protozoa and holotrichous protozoa.

Figure 2; Testing pH intervals in a cow (Norwegian University of Life Sciences 2011) Results
1. Sensory examination
The sample that was introduced to us had the color brown green color, fluid consistency, normal aromatic smell, no admixtures. 2. Biochemical determination
a) pH determination
* pH: 8-8.5

b) Determination of the amylolytic activity
* 0.75 Starch Solution used
* H2O: Indigo color
* 10 Drops: Dark purple color
* 20 Drops: Brown

3. Microscopic evaluation of protozoa
a) Preliminary evaluation of the protozoa density
Table 1; 5 fields measured, both...
tracking img