Explain how the Christological councils of Nicaea, Constantinople, Ephesus and Chalcedon were a “tug of war” (a dialect) between the humanity and the divinity of Jesus.
A Christological council was a meeting that had certain individuals gather together and discuss problems or a situation about Christianity. There were at least two sides opposing each other’s views. Often it was very intense in the debates and arguments that took place. It is similar to a political council where you have leaders and rule makers, except it did not involve government or anything related to it, but instead it had beliefs and views. The reason for a Christological council was to solve disputes among Christianity that had arisen from peoples own views and ways of thinking. It created a lot of stress, confusion and even conflict for the believers especially in the very early days of Christianity. The very first council was the Council of Jerusalem which was held in 49 A.D. It was to decide upon whether gentiles had to become Jewish or follow Jewish customs in order to become Christian. This council was not as big as or difficult as the major ones that came 300 years later. The main councils were Nicaea in 325, Constantinople in 381, Ephesus in 431 and Chalcedon in 451. The general problem was with the divinity of Jesus. People had concerns over it because of the way Jesus revealed things to the people. He talked of his relationship to his father, therefore he must be God, but then he talks of his relationship with us by calling us brothers and sisters, therefore isn’t he human. The “Monarchia” played a big role by questioning how God could share his divine power with the son. After Constantine’s legalization more people became Christian, therefore it opened doors to philosophers and other educated people who study the religion. Moreover the nature of people’s beliefs came out....
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