What happened? (description) What would you do if it happened again? (action plan) What were you thinking/feeling? (feeling)
What alternatives did you have? (conclusion) How can you make sense of what happened? (analysis)
What was good/bad about the experience? (evaluation)
The circular process by which our thoughts affect our actions, which affect the situation we are dealing with and therefore after feedback through the reactions of others involved which can affect how we understand and think about the situation. So we constantly get evidence about how effective or worthwhile our actions are.
What is Reflection?
“Learning from experience” (Spalding, 1998) “Thoughtful deliberation” (Tickle, 1994)
WHAT IS REFLECTION?
“systematic, critical and creative thinking about action with the intention of understanding its roots and processes” (Fish and Twinn,1997)
Has 3 Stages: • The learning opportunity • The information gathering and critical analysis • The changed perspective (Spalding,1998)
Spalding N.J. (1998). Reflection in Professional Development: A Personal Experience. B.J. of Therapy and Rehabilitation. July 1998, Vol. 5, No. 7. Tickle L. (1994). The Induction of New Teachers. Castell, London. Fish and Twinn (1997). Quality Clinical Supervision in the Health Care Professions: Principled Approaches to Practice. Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford.
Parham. D. (1987). Towards Professionalism: The Reflective Therapist. Am. J. of O.T. 41: 555–60. Schon. D. (1991). The Reflective Practitioner. How Professionals Think in Action. Jossey Barr, San Francisco. Alsop. A (2000). Continuing Professional Development: A Guide for Therapists. Blackwell Science, Oxford.
Reflective Learning Log
Consider all these questions in whatever order suits you.
What was the event?
What was I expecting to learn (if appropriate)?
What have I learned?
What is significant about this learning for me?
How does this learning link to the competencies for my job?
How will this learning change my practice?
DATE: What were my feelings about what happened?
What went well?
What didn’t go so well?
What were the feelings of others involved?
What evidence do you have?
What evidence from research was used?
(Jane Williams & Pam Cowley, Mid Devon Working Group Approved DMT Sept 2004)
Model of Structured Reflection [Johns (1992) and Carper (1978)] Cue Questions:
1. Description of experience 1.1. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. Phenomenon Causal Context Clarifying Describe the here and now experience What essential factors contributed to this experience? What are the significant background factors to this experience? What are the key processes for Reflection in this experience?
2. Reflection 2.1. What was I trying to achieve? 2.2. Why did I intervene as I did? 2.3. What were the consequences of my actions for: • myself? • the patient/family? • the people I work with? 2.4. How did I feel about this experience when it was happening? 2.5. How did the patient feel about it? 2.6. How do I know how the patient felt about it? 3. Influencing factors 3.1. What internal factors influenced my decision making? 3.2. What external factors influenced my decision making? 3.3. What sources of knowledge did/should have influenced my decision making? 4. Could I have dealt better with the situation? 4.1. What other choices did I have? 4.2. What would be the consequences of these choices? 5. Learning 5.1. How do I now feel about this experience? 5.2. How have I made sense of this experience in the light of past experience and future practice? 5.3. How has this experience changed my ways of knowing: • • • • empirics? aesthetics? ethics? personal?
(Taken from “Centre for Health Education” info RD+E(H) April 02)
The Reflective Process — Analysing & Learning from Experience 1. Gather the Information
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