A. People are reconsidering the policy of colonialism.
1. After WWII, people questioned whether dictatorship was a good idea.
2. “All nations should be free from the power of other nations.”
3. Keeping colonies had a high cost. It wasn’t worth it.
4. Colonized people pressed harder for freedom. Ex: British-held India II. A Movement Toward Independence
A. The Indian’s strive to freedom intensifies.
1. British had power over India for 2 centuries.
2. Britain drafted Indians into WWII in 1939 without the consent of the the colony’s representatives.
3. Gandhi launched civil disobedience and many who followed were arrested.
4. To gain favor of the Indians, Britain promised government changes after WWII, but didn’t offer freedom.
B. Besides colonialism, India struggles with internal conflict.
1. They have religious disagreements.
350 million Hindus
100 million Muslims
2. The Congress Party (aka Indian National Congress: India’s national political party) was made up mostly of Hindus, and a few Muslims.
C. The Muslim League is created.
1. The Muslim League (1906) is the organization against the mostly Hindu Congress Party, aimed to protect Muslim interest. 2. (The leader) Muhammad Ali Jinnah asked all Muslims to leave the Congress party. He would not accept independence from Britain if it meant staying under Hindu rule. III. Freedom Brings Turmoil
A. The decision of who receives power is being made.
1. The British lost much wealth after WWII, and was ready to turn over their power, since keeping up with colonies was costly.
2. The power will either be given to Hindus or Muslims.
B. Muslims resisted Hindu domination.
1. Rioting broke out and in 1946, there were 20,000 casualties in a 4 day clash in Calcutta. C. Pakistan was created.
1. To maintain peace, Britain decided to partition (division of Indian religions into separate nations; idea first brought up by Muslims) India.
2. North western and eastern part of India became Pakistan which was dominated by Muslims. D. Everything in India was being divided.
1. British granted India and Pakistan a month of independence in July 16, 1947. 2. Princes had to decide which nation they’d join.
3. The civil service (courts, military, railways, police) was divided.
4. The differing religions had to decide where to go.
E. One million people died during the move to their new nation.
1. Muslims killed Sikhs moving to India.
2. Sikhs and Hindus killed Muslims going to Pakistan.
3. Gandhi went to the Indian capital (Delhi) to ask for mercy, but was killed by a hindu extremist in January 30, 1948.
F. Hindus and Muslims fight for Kashmir.
1. Kashmir is at the northern point of India next to Pakistan.
2. It had a Hindu ruler, but the majority of people living there was Muslim.
3. Fighting continued until UN arranged cease-fire in 1949.
4. One-third went to Pakistan (Muslims) and the rest to India (Hindus). IV. Modern India
A. India has become the world’s largest democracy.
1. India gained independence in August 15, 1947.
2. Jawaharlal Nehru (the independent nation’s first prime minister) addressed India’s freedom.
B. Nehru is the leader.
1. He served the first 17 years of India’s independence as leader.
2. He was a devoted follower of Gandhi.
3. He emphasized democracy, unity, and economic modernization, and became very popular with all Indian groups.
C. Nehru pushed India forward.
1. He led newly independent nations into making alliances with other non aligned nations.
2. He reorganized the states by language and pushed for industrialization and social reform.
3. He raised the status of those in lower class (lower castes and women). D. A new leader came.
1. Nehru died in 1964.
2. His daughter, Indira Gandhi, became prime minister in 1966, left office, and was re elected in 1980.
E. Challenges set on Indira caused...