Summary of Chapter IV (topic 5, 6, 7 and 8):
Rizal insists on Education as the Instrumental for Social Progress. A major contribution to the making of the Filipino nation was Rizal’s insistence on the education. He considered this as cornerstone of the reforms of the country. In his desire to improve the lot of the people he saw the need to educate them first. To him reforms would not mean anything at all if the people did not understand them. Only education could make this possible. Here lies the primacy of education.
He was to show them that education stands as the foundation of society. Through the mayor of San Diego in the Noli Me Tangere, Rizal stated the role of education in national development: A school is being founded and the school is the basis of society, the school is the book in which is written the future of the nations! Show us the schools of people and we will show you what a people are.
Rizal pleaded to government authorities to take steps to improve the education of the Filipinos: Rizal wrote, “That the cause of our backwardness and ignorance is the lack of means of education, the vice that afflicts us from the beginning until the end of our careers.”
Rizal advanced all possible arguments in favor of the Filipinos’ need for education. “Without education and liberty – the soil and the sun of mankind no measure can give the desired result”, wrote Rizal. Rizal’s appeal for education was not contrary to Spain’s aim at Christianizing the Filipinos. Rizal warned Spain against the possible outcome that may arise from denying the people the benefits of education. The enriching events of Rizal’s study abroad made him see how education could bring social progress. And this he directed toward the development of national sentiment. Rizal’s desire to share with his people what he had learned during his studies in Spain, France, Germany and his observations in London and Belgium became his supreme aspiration. The noble aspiration was a major step necessary in national development. Rizal consistently urged his fellowmen to do everything they could do for the education of their generation. Rizal gladly assures Blumentritt who was interested in the education of the Filipinos that the efforts of the Filipinos in educating their n countrymen were guided by vigor. THE PEOPLE’S WELFARE IS THE CONCERN OF GOVERNMENTS. Another contribution of Rizal to the building of the Filipino nation was his soul searching endeavors in crystallizing the true function of the government and how these functions may be carried out for the benefit of the people. The Filipinos were being prepared to work for national ideals compatible with their status as a freedom-loving people. Rizal’s endeavors were geared in arousing national consciousness along a program for national development. After a thorough study of colonial administration, Rizal argued that the main function of any government, including the governments of colonies, is the promotion of the people’s welfare. Rizal’s stay in Spain, France, Germany, and London, Belgium enabled him to study how the government in these countries functioned. He learned a number of policies and practices which proved useful in the campaign for reforms. A colonizing country must know her colony. This was one of the important policies Rizal observed. The rulers did not understand their subjects. This was a condition he knew existed in the colonial government. A second observation was on the status of the Philippines under Spain’s colonial system of administration. In this discussion with Blumentritt, Rizal disagreed with Blumentritt’s opinion that the welfare of the country must be suppressed in the interest of the state. He wrote: The Philippines is not Spain. She only belongs to Spain. The happiness of Spain is not the happiness of the Philippines but indeed her misfortune. The third and timely observation made by Rizal about colonizing power...