Risk Management Practices by Royal Shell

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{draw:rect} {draw:rect} {draw:rect} {draw:rect} Risk Management practices by Royal Dutch Shell plc {draw:frame} Risk factors considered by Royal Dutch Shell plc Prices of oil, natural gas, oil products and chemicals are affected by supply and demand. Factors that influence these include operational issues, natural disasters, weather, political instability, or conflicts, economic conditions or actions by major oil-exporting countries. Price fluctuations can test our business assumptions, and can affect Shell’s investment decisions, operational performance and financial position. CURRENCY FLUCTUATIONS AND EXCHANGE CONTROLS As a global company, changes in currency values and exchange controls could affect our operational performance and financial position. ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL MARKET CONDITIONS Shell companies are subject to differing economic and financial market conditions throughout the world. Political or economic instability affect such markets. If such a risk materialises it could affect our operational performance and financial position. TRADING AND TREASURY In the course of normal business activities, shell is subject to trading and treasury risks. These include among others exposure to movements in commodity prices, interest rates, and foreign exchange rates, counter party default and various operational risks Different risk faced by Royal Dutch shell Market risk Market risk is the possibility that changes in interest rates, currency exchange rates or the prices of natural gas, electrical power, crude oil, refined products, chemical feedstocks and environmental products will adversely affect the value of Shell’s assets, liabilities or expected future cash flows. Most of Shell’s debt is raised from central borrowing programmes. Shell has entered into interest rate swaps and currency swaps to effectively convert most centrally-issued debt to floating rate US dollar LIBOR (London Inter-Bank Offer Rate), reflecting its policy to have debt mainly denominated in US dollars and to have largely floating interest rate exposure profile. Consequently Shell is exposed predominantly to US dollar LIBOR interest rate movements. The financing of most subsidiaries is also structured on a floating-rate basis and, except in special cases; further interest rate risk management is discouraged. Based on the Consolidated Balance Sheet at December 31, 2007, the impact on net interest income/expense of a change in interest rates of 1% would not be significant. Foreign exchange risk The functional currency for most upstream companies and for other companies with significant international business is the US dollar, but other companies usually have their local currency as their functional currency. Foreign exchange risk arises when certain transactions are denominated in a currency that is not the entity’s functional currency. Typically these transactions are income/expense or non-monetary item related. Each subsidiary has treasury policies in place which are designed to measure and manage its foreign currency exposures by reference to its functional currency and to report foreign exchange gains and losses. Shell co-ordinates the management of these currency risks by providing regional treasury centers to transact with subsidiaries and facilitate the netting of foreign exchange positions. These net positions are then managed and transactions undertaken with the external market. A range of derivatives are used, the most common being forward foreign exchange contracts. Most of Shell’s debt is either denominated in US dollars or is hedged back into US dollars using currency swaps. Foreign exchange gains and losses arising from foreign currency transactions included in income are not significant. Price risk Certain subsidiaries have a mandate to trade natural gas, electrical power, crude oil, refined products, chemical feedstocks and environmental products, and to use commodity swaps, options and futures as a means of managing...
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