City University of London
Risk Management is Safety. Discuss
MSc Air Safety Management• Risk Management •Coursework A
Introduction Risk and safety have continuously been important concerns in the aviation industry. Current Industry conditions of constant growth and demand in air travel , lack of airport capacity and experienced and qualified personnel have all contributed towards increased pressures on the system components of today’s aviation world. These pressures amongst others take the form of Risk and if not properly controlled can become the main cause of aviation accidents.
This paper shall offer an insight into the relationship between Risk and Safety and how Managing Risk has effectively created an integrated process that provides hazard identification, assessment and mitigation against these identified threats contributing directly towards an operational increase in today’s airline’s safety standards.
1•Definition of Risk
ICAO defines risk as ‘The likelihood of injury to personnel, damage to equipment or structures, loss of material, or reduction of ability to perform a prescribed function, measured in terms of probability and severity ‘ . In simpler terms we may say that risk from an aviation perspective is an evaluation of the efficiency (or deficiency) of hazard identification for the preservation of the value of the useful resources used. Although one may understand that only one kind of risk exists, various studies have identified different kinds of risks. Sage and White in their study (Sage and White, 1980) identified 4 types of risk: * Real Risk to an individual
* Statistical Risk which may be determined by quantitative data collection related to Aviation incidents and Accidents * Predicted Risk which may be predicted methodically from models structured from relevant studies and mathematical formulas * Perceived Risk , which may be instinctively felt and thus observed by the individual In the authors opinion all kinds of risks are present in the aviation industry today from aircraft insurance coverage which is based on statistic risk based on quantitative data collection by insurance companies to predicted risk related to the operation of an airline in a hostile environment; Predicted Risk on the other hand may be attributed to ATC Authorities managing perceived traffic pattern changes. The Systematic Management of these Risks has created a Structured Safety Management System that effectively controls risk in airline operations. These Risk Management processes are based on the airlines operator’s safety practices and shall be discussed at a later stage in this paper. 2•Aviation Safety Record
Rapid Growth in the in the air transport industry in the past 20 years has had quite effect on the aviation safety record. Data published by ICAO shows that Aircraft Hull loss statistics for western built aircraft have more than halved between 1990 and 2008. From 19 Fatalities per 10 Million in 1990 the figure has been reduced to 4.8 in 2008.Although there are different factors that have been on attributed to this reduction in accidents, the main focal point is that as historically fast growth has been normally followed by a series of accidents and incidents, occurrences of such events have stimulated the introduction new technologies and operational measures. One such technological advancement has been the introduction of EGPWS that has helped reducing CFIT accidents drastically. (Boeing, Aviation Occurrence Statistics 1999-2008). The approach used to manage aviation safety and risk has been previously resolved by the investigation of the cause of fatal aviation accidents. An assessment of the risk has been practically done after the actual fatal accident had occurred. Such risk measurement involved the...
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