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  • Topic: Decision making, Unilever, Consumer behaviour
  • Pages : 6 (1889 words )
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  • Published : May 21, 2013
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3.0. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
According to James F. Engel and Roger D Blackwell, (1986), noted that the behavior is likely to show variations from individual to individual, from product to product and from an individual of one region to individual of another region. Thus analyzing the consumer behavior is a prerequisite though the process is highly complicated. At the same time, a firm’s ability to establish and maintain satisfying exchange relationships depends on the level of understanding of buying behavior. Thus, buying behavior is the decision process and acts of people involved in buying and using products.

According to R. Crain and F. Danzig, (1987-Aug), the management of Procter and Gamble stated: “Our business is based on understanding the consumer and providing the kind of products that the consumer wants. We place enormous emphasis on our product development area and our marketing area and on our people knowing the consumer”

According to Ronald R. Gist, (1974), consumer is the principal a priori of business. The efficiency, with which a free market system of enterprise operates, in the last analysis, depends upon the extent of consumer understanding possessed by the business community.

According to Peter F. Drucker was apt in saying, “It is the consumer who determines what a business is… what the customer thinks he is buying, what it produces and whether it will prosper.”
According to Adam Smith that, “consumption is the sole end and purpose of all production”
According to Glenn Walters, (1974), consumer behavior may be defined as that behavior exhibited by people in planning, purchasing and using economic goods and services. Consumer behavior is an integral part of human behavior and cannot be separated from it. In fact, the consumer behavior is a subset of human behavior. This does not mean that all human behavior is consumption-oriented. Human behavior refers to the total process by which individuals interact with their environment.

According to Ibid, consumer behavior or buyer behavior is the process by which individuals decide whether, what, when, where, how and from whom to purchase goods and services.
According to Baker, (1971), the membership in such groups often modifies the behavioral responses of an individual. These modifications, in turn, are caused by factors such as psycho-sociological and/or socio-psychological. Study of these influences has created a whole new field of marketing, usually referred to as “consumer behavior”.

According to John A. Howard and Jagadish N. Sheth, (1969), it is a usual behavior with most consumers to have the general objective of creating and maintaining a collection of goods and services that provides current and future satisfaction. For example, an average adult must make several decisions daily regarding food, clothing, shelter, education, transportation, etc. but when they make decisions, buyers use different decision-making behaviors. The various types of consumer decision making vary considerably and are classify as follows: routine response behavior, limited decision making and extensive decision making.

According to Maslow, (1954), a consumer buys a particular product because he is influenced by certain motives. Motive is a strong feeling, urge, instinct, desire or emotion that makes the buyer to react in the form of a decision to buy. For that matter, every human activity is motivated and is not spontaneous. Consumers, for example, are goal-seekers who gratify their needs by purchases and consumption. In other words, needs are the motivational elements behind purchase. The needs were classified by Abraham H. Maslow, in a pyramid form known as ‘Hierarchy of Needs’. According to Wikipedia, “Buyer Person as are fictional characters created to represent the different user types within a targeted demographic, attitude and/or behavior set that might use a site, brand or product in a similar way. Personas are useful in considering the goals,...
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