Reverse Logistics for Electrical and Electronic Equipment: a modular simulation model
L. GUERRA, T. MURINO, E. ROMANO
Department of Materials Engineering and Operations Management University of Naples “Federico II”
P.le Tecchio – 80125 Napoli
firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org http://www.impianti.unina.it Abstract: In recent years there has been a significant growth in WEEE production, which actually is the most worldwide rapidly growing category of waste. The synergic action of different actors involved in environmental protection, is pushing more and more EEE manufacturers to adapt their strategies, plans and business goals in an environmentally conscious way. As time goes by, the role of the Reverse Logistics is becoming more and more critical in this field: from the mere waste management to the actual managing, planning and control of the returns flow concerning raw materials, packaging, stocks, finished products from retailers to suitable collecting, reuse, recycling or remanufacturing centers. In this paper a logical model will be described reproducing the WEEE distribution flows, considering several functional aspects. The model is then implemented by means of specific simulation software to identify critical operational aspects. Considering actual data and opportunely tuning the model some important issues will be assessed. Key-Words: Modeling, Logistic chain Integration, DES simulation, Reverse Logistics Theory with the Legislative Decree 151/2005 which came
into force on 31 December 2008.
Even if the Directive was to engage the collection,
by 2008, of 4 kg/person per year, just 2 kg/person
are actually collected in Italy against a European
average of 6 kg/person.
In this paper a logical model will be described
reproducing the WEEE distribution flows,
considering several functional aspects. The model is
then implemented by means of specific simulation
software to identify critical operational aspects.
Considering actual data and opportunely tuning the
model some important issues will be assessed:
the optimal location of collection centers;
the optimal location of treatment facilities;
optimization of routes.
This paper is further organized as follows. In
Section 2 an insight into Italian legislative body and
the actual organization of the Italian WEEE
recovery system are presented. In Section 3 the
above mentioned model is discussed. Simulation
results are presented in Section 4. Some conclusions
are drawn in Section 7.
WEEE means waste resulting from the use of
electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) which
operate by means of electric currents and
In recent years there has been a significant growth
in WEEE production, which actually is the most
worldwide rapidly growing category of waste with a
growth rate of 3-5% annually (three times higher the
growth rate of the common trash) even if it will
unfortunately rise by 16-20% over the next ten years
Handling this type of waste is becoming more and
more difficult even in Italy: more than 850.000 tons
of electrical and electronic equipment were
discharged in 2008 from private households and
businesses and only 14% were properly collected.
As a matter of fact, these goods are sent for the most
part (more then 80%) in landfills or incinerators at
the end of their life cycle, with any pre-treatment or
safety measure for dangerous substances.
That being so and considering the increasing
societal awareness about environmental matters,
European Directives 2002/96/EC and 2003/108/EC,
as concerns WEEE management, and European
Directive 2002/95/EC, on reduction of hazardous
substances contained within them (ROHS,
Restriction of Hazardous Substances), were issued.
These Directives were jointly implemented in Italy