Estimation of Electromagnetic Radiation from Base Station Antenna R. K. Singh
Abstract—In the present paper, an observation of electromagnetic radiation from base station antennas installed for various communication purposes has been done on the basis of equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP) calculations. For this purpose, a typical wireless communication site has been selected where GSM, CDMA, 3G/UMTS and WiMAX antennas are installed. The overall ration of EIRP and threshold EIRP combining all these services have been calculated at ground level (0.03133648), and nearby building (0.0126787). It has been found that the ratio of EIRP and threshold EIRP is less than unity and thus the particular site is normally compliant and does not cause any adverse health effects. For the general public, the exclusion zone (compliance distance) from GSM, CDMA, 3G/UMTS and WiMAX antennas have been found at 8.103m, 6.755m, 6.466m, and 7.196m, respectively. Keywords—Compliance distance, EM radiation, Equivalent isotropically radiated power, Non-ionizing radiation. I. INTRODUCTION Several surveys have found a variety of self-reported symptoms for people who live close to base stations -. Collectively, they have not provided evidence of a relationship, but they have had sufficient limitations to leave the question unresolved -. ICNIRP (International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection) study has concluded that the exposure levels due to cell phone base stations are generally around one-ten-thousandth of the guideline levels . Moreover, the WHO has classified mobile phone radiation on the IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer) scale into Group 2B - possibly carcinogenic to humans . That means that there ‘could be some risk’ of carcinogenicity, so additional research into the long-term, heavy use of mobile phones/wireless technologies needs to be conducted.There is a need for not only controlling the haphazard installation of the towers but also undertaking systematic study for measurements of the radiation levels in some selected high-population-density urban areas to ensure that the power density levels are well below the prescribed threshold limits. The results need to be made available for public education and scrutiny. Further, it is better to take preventive measures and even try to mitigate the radiation levels to provide greater protection to general public and workers.In India, the present threshold limits prescribed by the government are considered to be rather too generous (one of the highest in the world), and hence there is a need to review and remedy the situation and not wait until it becomes the subject matter of a public-interest petition in the light of possible environmental adverse effects.Present paper focuses on the different types of electromagnetic radiation and their possible effects on human health. The exposure limits for the frequency range of interest have been presented in Section II. In Section III, estimation of exposure level based on numerical calculations has been presented. The results obtained at the selected site for the study has been presented and finally conclusion has been drawn in Section IV. II. EM RADIATION AND STANDARDS Electromagnetic radiation is a form of energy exhibiting wave-like behavior as it travels through space. It has both electric and magnetic (E and H) field components, which oscillate in phase perpendicular to each other and perpendicular to the direction of energy propagation. Fig. 1 shows different forms of electromagnetic energy in the entire spectrum of EM radiation with the range of frequencies, sources, their energies, and effects.
HE effect of electromagnetic radiation on human health is the subject of recent interest and study, as a result of the enormous installation of cellphone towers in thickly populated areas of many cities throughout the world....