JORDAN UNIVERSITY COLLEGE
A constituent college of st. of Augustine University of Tanzania (SAUT)
FACULTY OF EDUCATION
P.O BOX 1878, Morogoro-Tanzania.
COURSE; ENGLISH STRUCTURE
CODE; LL 214
SUBMITTED BY; GERALD, RICHARD
REGISTRATION NUMBER; 2011/ 0237
SUBMITTED TO; MADAM MARY JIBREA
TASK: THE RELEVANCES OF ENGLISH SRUCTURE TO THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE.
Structure of English
We can study the English structure to relate to the English language in a variety of ways. For example, we can study classes of words (parts of speech), meanings of words, with or without considering changes of meaning (semantics), how words are organized in relation to each other and in larger constructions (syntax), how words are formed from smaller meaningful units (morphology), the sounds of words (perception and pronunciation or articulation), and how they form patterns of knowledge in the speaker's mind (phonetics and phonology) and how standardized written forms represent words (orthography). Since this website is primarily devoted to the exploration of English through its words, the focus in this website is on morphology (word structure) and other aspects of words, such as etymology, lexical semantic change, word usage, lexical types of words, and words marking specific linguistic varieties. Morphology
This is the study of the structure of words. The name comes from Greek morphos (=shape or form). The smallest units of meaning may be whole simple words (e.g. man, run, big) or parts of complex words (e.g. un-, -faith- and -ful in unfaithful) which are called morphemes. Some morphemes, such as faith in un-faith-full or dream in dream-ing can stand alone as words which make sense. These are known as free morphemes. Other morphemes, such as prefixes and suffixes (collectively called affixes), cannot stand alone - they need to be part of a complex word to make sense. Examples are dis- in dis-miss, dis-pute or dis-grace, -ing in dream-ing, -ness in happi-ness or sad-ness and even -s used to form plurals, as in boy-s or horse-s. These morphemes are said to be bound morphemes.
Parts of Speech
Every statement is a combination of words, and every statement says something to communicate information. The simplest possible kind of statement - for example, Dogs bark - has two kinds of words in it. It has a what word, dogs, and a what happens word, bark. These kinds of words are
the most basic parts of any statement. If a person only says dog, no statement is made, and no information is conveyed. Nouns
The what words are called nouns. They tell what is being talked about. They are identifying words, or names. Nouns identify persons, places, or things. They may be particular persons, places, or things: Michael Jackson, Reykjavik, World Trade Center. Or they may be general nouns: singer, town, building. Concrete nouns indicate things that can be seen such as car, teapot, and potato. Abstract nouns denote concepts such as love, honesty, and beauty.
These are words used in place of nouns phrase typically referring to people and thing already known example she talks to herself. Types of pronouns Personal pronouns | Demonstrative pronouns | Indefinite pronouns | Relative and interrogative pronouns There are several words that are used to replace nouns.
Verbs are the action words in a statement. They tell what is happening - what a noun is doing or what is being done to it, or the state of being, becoming, thinking or feeling. A verb with a subject, which will be in a particular tense is a finite verb. Without a subject it will be the infinitive form (for example, to think, to dream) or a gerund (the present participle, used as a noun: smoking is bad for you). When a verb denotes what a noun is doing, the noun is said to be the subject of the verb: The man speaks. When the verb denotes what is being done to a noun, the noun is the object of the verb:...
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