Justice ® Dr. Munir Ahmad Mughal
Research is a field in every discipline of studies. What, why, when, where, who, whom, how and other queries or questions concerning it have been raised and answered in this paper. The object is to create inquisitiveness in the readers and to study critically and carefully this subject so that it may be useful and fruitful.
What is research?
Literally, research means to get certitude concerning anything after thorough probe. It is to investigate and sift the facts and make the seed separate from the chaff. It is to remove the errors from the information or knowledge. A historian after conducting his research brings forward the true facts before the people regarding an era or personality that have become a history or record of the past. An expert in medical science after analysing the substances and their effects produces new drugs or finds out a new way of diagnosing a disease.
Research is also called scientific study or scientific analysis. Research is conducted individually as well as collectively. Thus there are research institutions besides educational institutions. All progress and advancement in the fields of science and technology is due to the various researches conducted by human beings in the world. Cory’s Definition of Research
According to Cory research is the name of acceleration of the work of theory and practice historically.
According to Clifford Woody a research is a significant activity from among the activities of a university in which the participation of a professor is a must. Its real objective is the finding of the facts, sifting the seed from the chaff, and determination of their purpose.
According to a school of thought of experts research means verification of the validity of knowledge, its extent, and to exact results after thorough probe of concepts, ideologies or things for advancement and progress of knowledge.
In modern age much vastness has taken place in the circle of research. For research purposes in the official, semi-official and private circles big institutions have been established. Research is going on not only in arts and science subjects but also to know the secrets of the universe.
COMMON FEATURES OF RESEARCH
As much expansion has occurred in the process of research, therefore, for every species of research separate features have been described. Pure scientific research has totally different features from social research. However, the common general features of research are as follows: •Research should have been made according to the well established principles and maxims of research. •Such instruments and tools should have been used in conducting a research which are necessary for such research. •The new research must prove itself to have made any addition in the already conducted research or it disproves the results of the old research.
•In case of social research the basis of statistical data, information or assessment etc. should have been so vast that they render the results reliable. •Before presenting the results those should be verified many a time so that there remains no possibility of their proving false or doubtful. •A research which is conducted for the experts and researchers should contain all relevant terminologies in true reference to the context. •A research which is conducted for general public its results must be stated in a manner understood by the general public (or laymen). •The object of a research must be to provide help in planning different development projects. •A research must be helpful in solving the human problems or the issues with which humanity is presently confronted or the challenges or crisis which the state or society is facing or apprehends to face. •A research must be an addition to the existing knowledge or experience. •A research in any field by any one at any time in any manner in any capacity must be an advancement...