a. Rating and ranking scales
Rating scales are used when participants score an object or indicant without making a direct comparison to another object or attitude. Possible problems of rating scales include leniency, central tendency and the halo effect.
Ranking scales are used to tap preferences between two or items, which compares qualities of many items. However, participants may become careless using this scale, causing excessive errors.
b. Likert and differential scales
Likert scales are the most frequently used variation. This scale provides a high volume of data, asking a rater to agree or disagree with statements that express either favorable or unfavorable attitudes toward an object. In addition, Likert scales assist in comparing different subjects. Because Likert scales are classified under the rating scale category, common rating scale problems are produced.
Differential scales measure psychological meanings of an attitude or an object. This method consists of a set of bipolar rating scales. There are several advantages of this scale. It produces interval data and it is an efficient and simple means to secure attitudes from a large sample. This technique can be easily repeated whereas escaping many problems of response distortion found with more direct methods.
c. Unidimensional and multidimensional scales
A unidimensional scale is an in instrument scale that is designed to measure only one attribute of the respondents or object.
A multidimensional scale is a scaling technique for objects or people where the instrument scale seeks to measure more than one attribute of the respondents or object. The results are usually mapped. Multidimensional scaling recognizes that an object might be better described in an attribute space of n dimensions rather than on a unidimensional continuum.
1. Suppose your...