1. A recent issue of Fortune Magazine reported that the following companies had the lowest sales per employee among the Fortune 500 companies. [20 Marks]
a. How many elements are in the above data set?  b. How many variables are in the above data set?  c. How many observations are in the above data set?  d. Name the scale of measurement for each of the variables.  e. Name the variables and indicate whether they are categorical or quantitative. 
2. Below you are given the examination scores of 20 students. [20 Marks]
...UNIVERSITY – HOCHIMINH CITY INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION o0o
CHAPTER 14: CHISQUARE TESTING
STATISTICS FOR BUSINESS TAs: Vo Vuong Van Anh, Le Phuoc Thien Thanh, and Le Nhat Ho December 21, 2013
TABLE OF CONTENTS
• PART I: CHISQUARE TESTING FOR GOODNESSOFFIT. • PART II: CHISQUARE TESTING FOR NORMAL DISTRIBUTION. • PART III: CHISQUARE TESTING FOR INDEPENDENCE.
December 2013
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12/21/2013
Hypothesis Testing Procedure for ChiSquare Testing
5 Steps to Perform an ChiSquare Testing STEP 01 State the null and alternative hypotheses ( STEP 02
) Determine the expected counts (frequencies of occurrence of certain events expected under the null hypothesis) and observed counts of data points falling in the different cells. Compute the teststatistic value (based on the difference between the observed and the expected; Hint: Establishing a table) Find the critical value at the predetermined significance level. Draw conclusion by comparing the teststatistic value and the critical value.
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STEP 03 STEP 04 STEP 05
December 2013
PART I: CHISQUARE TESTING FOR GOOODNESSOFFIT
• A goodnessoffit chisquare test is a statistical test of how well our data support an assumption about the distribution of a population or random variable of interest. The test...
...
QoS Techniques: MPLS
CET 2486C – Network Technologies
Professor:
November 27, 2012
Abstract
MPLS or Multi Protocol Label Switching is a networking technology that functions between layers 2 and 3 of the OSI model. MPLS constitutes of adding a label (sometimes called “Shim” because of their placement between layer 3 and layer 2 headers.) to the data package, this label contains special addressing and sometimes prioritization information. Because the MPLS label contains all the information necessary for the router to forward the package to the next hop, the router does not have to spend time analyzing the entire package thus improving network latency or bottlenecks. Due to its multi protocol capabilities MPLS can be integrated with different networking technologies from ATM to native IP environments; in addition, this multi protocol capability also provides a way to converge different types of traffic such as data, voice and video onto one network. MPLS technology also provides some other advantageous features like Traffic Engineering (TE), VPN, Any Transport over MPLS (AToM) and Quality of Service (QoS). This paper will help provide an understanding of how MPLS works and the QoS capabilities it can provide.
History of MPLS
In 1996 a group from Ipsilon Networks introduced a “flow management protocol”, this technology only worked with ATM transmissions and did not become very popular in the market. Not long after Cisco...
...relationships in data and dealing with uncertainty
which in turn includes measuring uncertainty and modelling uncertainty explicitly.
In addition to data analysis, other decision making techniques are discussed. These techniques
include decision analysis, project scheduling and network models.
Chapter 1 illustrates a number of ways to summarise the information in data sets, also known as
descriptive statistics. It includes graphical and tabular summaries, as well as summary measures
such as means, medians and standard deviations.
Uncertainty is a key aspect of most business problems. To deal with uncertainty, we need a basic
understanding of probability. Chapter 2 covers basic rules of probability and in Chapter 3 we
discuss the important concept of probability distributions in some generality.
In Chapter 4 we discuss statistical inference (estimation), where the basic problem is to estimate
one or more characteristics of a population. Since it is too expensive to obtain the population
information, we instead select a sample from the population and then use the information in the
sample to infer the characteristics of the population.
In Chapter 5 we look at the topic of regression analysis which is used to study relationships
between variables.
In Chapter 6 we study another type of decision making called decision analysis where costs and
proﬁts are considered to be important. The problem is not whether to accept or...
...Trajico, Maria Liticia D.
BSEd IIIA2
REFLECTION
The first thing that puffs in my mind when I heard the word STATISTIC is that it was a very hard subject because it is another branch of mathematics that will make my head or brain bleed of thinking of how I will handle it. I have learned that statistic is a branch of mathematics concerned with the study of information that is expressed in numbers, for example information about the number of times something happens. As I examined on what the statement says, the phrase “number of times something happens” really caught my attention because my subconscious says “here we go again the nonstop solving, analyzing of problems” and I was right. This course of basic statistic has provided me with the analytical skills to crunch numerical data and to make inference from it. At first I thought that I will be alright all along with this subject but it seems that just some part of it maybe it is because I don’t pay much of my attention to it but I have learned many things. I have learned my lesson.
During our every session in this subject before having our midterm examination I really had hard and bad times in coping up with this subject. When we have our very first quiz I thought that I would fail it but it did not happen but after that, my next quizzes I have taken I failed. I was always feeling down when in every quiz I failed because even though I don’t like this...
...because: 
 a.  customers know that the viewpoint of a third party is always accurate. 
b.  customers seldom trust a salesperson, but do trust a third party. 
c.  customers will be far more impressed with your good points if they are presented by a third party rather than by you. 
d.  customers always respect the opinions of a third party. 
e.  customers don't want to take the time to really get to know sales reps. 

20.  Simon uses confirmation questions; questions used to determine if information is correctly understood: 
 a.  hardly ever. 
b.  throughout a sales call. 
c.  at the end of a sales call. 
d.  at the beginning of a sales call. 
e.  in the middle of a sales call. 

Test Name: T2 Example F2012 
1.  e. Jill failed to develop good personal relationships with key people. 
2.  a. choose the right setting. 
3.  d. 4th or 5th 
4.  e. Export Development Corporation 
5.  d. budget limitation tactic. 
6.  c. developing the presale presentation plan. 
7.  b. encourage the customer to try it on. 
8.  e. does not do business while networking. 
9.  a. indirect denial. 
10.  d. a special concession close. 
11.  c. to enhance the role of the product. 
12.  a. suggestion selling. 
13.  e. they are authorized to buy the product. 
14.  e. more referrals. 
15.  c. probing question. 
16. ...
...MGS 3100  Business Analysis  Summer 2013 SampleTest
(Test 2, July 10th, 2013)
Name: _______________________________ ID number: _____________________
Multiple Choice: Select the one correct (or best) answer. For questions with calculations, select the closest answer, as there may be differences due to rounding. No part credit. No penalty for guessing (so answer all questions!). 3 points for each. Transfer answers carefully to the Scantron. *Cell phone is required to be off during the test. A basic calculator is allowed.
1. Use a 3period simple moving average to develop a forecast for year 6. Year 2 3 4 5 6 a. b. c. d. e. $415 $445 $525 $605 $625 Sales $450 $495 $518 $563 $584 Forecast
2. Data collected on the annual demand for 50pound bags of fertilizer at Pikes Garden Supply is shown below. Use a 3year weighted moving average to forecast sales for year 6, where the weights are 0.5, 0.3, and 0.2, respectively (where 0.5 is the weight for the most recent time period). Year Demand for Fertilizer (50pound bags) 4 6 10 8 6 Forecast
1 2 3 4 5 6 a. b. 200 pounds 250 pounds
1
c. d. e.
370 pounds 430 pounds 490 pounds
3. If the MAD for a forecast is 3.2, we can say that a. The forecast is 3.2 units too high on the average b. The forecast is 3.2 units too low on the average c. The forecast is accurate within plus or minus 3 percent d. The forecast is accurate within plus or minus 3.2 units e....
...Validity does the variable accurately reflect the phenomenon you are trying to measure. Reliability does the indicator consistently assign the same number. Crosssectional data no time/multiple entries. Panel data set multiple entries/over time. Time seriesone entry/time. Population: the total set of items or people that a researcher is interested in studying. Sample: a subset of the population random or nonrandom. Goal is to be representative of population.Criteria for evaluating causal relationships. Time order: which comes first (independent comes first). Theory: does it make sense. Covartiation: change in one and change in the other, will the two move together. Nonspurioussness: no alternative example. Mean use when #’s are in interval and no outliers. Mediannot sensitive to outliers, useful in ordinal only captures small amount of information about the sample. Mode the most frequent # will work with nominal, ordinal or interval. Positively skewed data is positively skewed because most of the scores tend to cluster toward the lower end of the scale with increasingly fewer scores at the upper end of the scale. Negatively skewed data is negatively skewed because most of the scores tend to occur toward the upper end of the scale while increasingly fewer scores occur toward the lower end. Standard deviation: number minus the mean, squared, added together and divided by number of values then take the square root. R=1, the numbers...
...Time  Contributor  Contribution 
Ancient Greece  Philosophers  Ideas  no quantitative analyses 
17th Century  Graunt,Petty
Pascal, Bernoulli  studied affairs of state, vital statistics of populations studied probability through games of chance, gambling 
18th Century  Laplace, Gauss  normal curve, regression through study of astronomy 
19th Century  Quetelet
Galton  astronomer who first applied statistical analyses to human biologystudied genetic variation in humans(used regression and correlation) 
20th Century (early)  PearsonGossett (Student)
Fisher  studied natural selection using correlation, formed first academic department of statistics, Biometrika journal, helped develop the Chi Square analysisstudied process of brewing, alerted the statistics community about problems with small sample sizes, developed Student's testevolutionary biologists  developed ANOVA, stressed the importance of experimental design 
20th Century (later)  Wilcoxon
Kruskal, Wallis
Spearman
Kendall
Tukey
Dunnett
Keuls
Computer Technology  biochemist studied pesticides, nonparametric equivalent of twosamples testeconomists who developed the nonparametric equivalent of the ANOVApsychologist who developed a nonparametric equivalent of the correlation coefficientstatistician who developed another nonparametric equivalent the correlation coefficientstatistician who developed multiple...