Grand Canyon University: Strategic Planning and Change
December 19, 2012
Change Models, Diagnosis Instruments, and Specific Change Interventions
To make meaningful and long-term change in an organization, an organization needs to follow the guidelines of a change model, a diagnostic instrument, and change intervention. This paper will discuss two change models, two diagnostic instruments, and two change interventions. Change Models
The two change models discussed in this paper are Lewin’s Change Model and the Action Research Model. Both of these models give a map on how to create change. Lewin’s model simplifies the process into three steps while the Action Research Model consists of eight steps. Both models three phases: Research phase, changing phase, and solidification phase (Luckett, 2003). Lewin’s Change Model
Lewin developed one of the very first models for change management (Luckett, 2003). He stated there are two types of people in an organization; those who resist change and those who strive for change (Luckett, 2003; JPC, 1995; Spector, 2007). He stated the two groups need to be of equal measure to maintain homeostasis (Luckett, 2003; JPC, 1995; Pellettiere, 2006; Spector, 2007). When both groups of people are equal, a frozed state (freeze) is achieved. Lewin (as cited by JPC, 1995) states a driving force is needed to either “strengthen the driving forces or weaken the restraining forces” to achieve change (para 3). Spector (2007) states, “to break the social habits that support existing patterns of behaviors, effective implementation needs to start with dissatisfaction, disequilibrium, and discomfort” (p. 29). When one side is strengthened and/or one side is weakened then change (move) can be achieved. During this time, the organization goes through redesign, new roles and responsibilities, and new relationships are made (Spector, 2007). After the change, or movement, is completed, the organization then needs to go back to a state of homeostasis (refreeze). Bridges (2003) echoed Lewin’s three stages to organizational change in his naming of the stages: Ending, losing, letting go; neutral zone, and New Beginning (Bridges, 2003, p. 5 as cited by Stragalas, 2010, p. 31). Lewin’s model with its three steps may be too simplistic for many organizations to achieve change. Without a less ambiguous map, the organization may not be able to sustain change. Action Research Model
The Action Research Model consists of eight steps: Problem identification, consultation with behavioral science expert, data gathering and preliminary diagnosis, feedback to key client or group, joint diagnosis of problem, joint action planning, action, and data gathering after collection (Boonstra, 2003; Luckett, 2003). The last five stages can be perpetual. After the last data gathering, the organization should return to “feedback to key client or group”. Once the feedback is given, the group may want to continue through the next steps. Whereas the diagnosis is completed through the “unfreeze” in Lewin’s model, in the Action Research model, diagnosis is completed during the “problem identification, consultation, and data gathering steps” (Luckett, 2003, p. 25). The changing phase for Lewin is the “move” step. In the Action Research model, the changing phase occurs during the “feedback, joint diagnosis, action planning, and action steps” (Luckett, 2003, p. 26). In Lewin’s model, the solidified phase takes place during the refreeze. In the Action Research model, solidification takes place during the “gathering after the action” (Luckett, 2003, p. 26). Moreover, “the continual process of feedback analysis solidifies the changes as the occur” (Luckett, 2003, p. 27). Unlike the Lewin model, Action Research allows for perpetual analysis that “facilitates adjustments in the organizations change plan” (Luckett, 2003,...