Chapter 3 Research Methodology Introduction This chapter will illustrate the steps used to examining and testing the research problems. This chapter is enclosed with research design, sampling, questionnaire design and data collection method. Type of Study Correlational study had been explored in this study. This study was performed focusing on the consumers that have environmental knowledge in Penang. In order to predict the relationship among the attitude, product knowledge, and promotion strategies with purchase intention towards green product. Hypotheses testing had been used to clarify the variance of the dependent variables. Nature of Study This study was performed under the natural environment which is non-contrived setting. Besides that, this is a cross sectional study because the data had been collected over a month period from the respondents after the questionnaire had been distributed in Penang. Exploratory Research In order to explore the problems towards green purchase intention, secondary data was collected from the variety of literatures. There are a lot of study which investigate the purchase intention towards luxury products, online music, counterfeit goods and so on but there are only a few of study investigate purchase intention towards green products (Summers, Belleau and Xu, 2006; Chu and Lu, 2007 and Wee, Ta and Cheok, 1995). Hence this study is focus on purchase intentions towards green products. Table 1 showed the summary of related research on purchase intentions towards consumer’s product. Author/s Summers, Belleau and Xu (2006) Chu and Lu (2007) Ta and Cheok (1995) Luxury products Online music Counterfeit goods Product
Table 1 related research summary on purchase intentions towards consumer’s product
Unit of Analysis The unit of analysis of this study are individuals who practice green consumerism in Penang. Research Site This study is focus on the individuals that stay in Penang.
Population, Sample Size and Sampling Technique The population of this study consist of the total population of Penang. Due to cost and time constraint non probability purposive convenient sampling method was applied to obtain the enough number of respondents. In order to determine the number of questionnaire needed for the significant of this study, Hair et al (1998) proposed that a ten to one ratio of the independent variables will be appropriate. In this case ten to one ratio will required at least 30 respondents for this study. For better explanatory and generalization power, we included 100 respondents from the population. The reason of 100 sample size taken is to increase the significant of the study and to include the potential error resulted from incomplete or unusable questionnaires.
Scales and Measurement Nominal scale had been used in Section A to determine the demographic variables while interval scale of measurement had been used in Section B to Section E. In Section B to Section E, the respondents were required to specify their agreement or disagreement with each statement by using 5-point scale. Below are the attitude ratings. Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree 1 2 3 4 5
In order to understand the purchase intention towards green products, the instruments in this study had been implementing and modified from a variety of literatures. Figure 1 illustrated the relationship between the variables as mention in the hypothesis.
Purchase Intention towards Green Product
Figure 1: Research Model
Independent variable According to Lazar, Feng and Hochheiser (2010) independent variable is “the factors that the researchers are interested in studying or the possible “cause” of the change in the dependent variable.” There are three independent variables in this study which is:
Attitude Attitude of the individuals was measures on four items using 5-point scale ranging from “strongly disagree” (1) to “strongly...
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