Some analysts hold the opinion that nowadays the essence of marketing is not a customer service, but beating business rivals; but classic definitions support another viewpoint. Philip Kotler, the world's foremost expert on the strategic practice of marketing, states that "marketing is the science and art of exploring, creating, and delivering value to satisfy the needs of a target market at a profit". The most comprehensive definition, in my opinion, was given by the American Marketing Association (AMA): "Marketing is an organizational function and a set of processes for creating, communicating and delivering value to customers and for managing customer relationships in ways that benefit the organization and its stakeholders". Chartered Institute of Marketing defines marketing as “the management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer requirements profitably”.
Marketing refers “ to just about any promotional activity: advertising, special events, direct mail, on-line discounts and promotions, and the like. “Marketing” means any and all ways of promoting your business. Advertising means buying space or airtime to deliver a promotional message designed to reach the general public, usually through print media, television, radio or the Internet. Of course, just about anything can carry an advertising message, including the sides of buses, bill-boards and park-benches. Marketing is not synonymous with advertising. Packroo (2009), asserts that “Paid advertising can be part of marketing strategy but it seldom makes sense for a new nonprofit to invest precious resources on ads. Paid advertising is much more expensive – and less effective – than many cheaper (or even free) methods of getting exposure”. More efficient ways to promote your non profit include: Coaching board members and other influential supporters to spread the word Networking with other nonprofits, government agencies, and community leaders Creating a website and promoting it.
Distributing bronchures, flyers or other literature
Pitching stories to local media
Listing your organization or events in local calendars and directories, and organizing or participating in conferences, seminars or other events. Effective marketing starts with solid organization:
“Lots of businesses fail to to understand the importance of having an efficient, organized operation in place before they start their marketing efforts. After-all you'll want to be ready to handle the heightened attention your marketing will bring to your organization. For example, a restaurant should not start a big marketing campaign without already having a good chef and enough wait-staff in place to handle a surge of diners. Otherwise the unprepared restaurant's marketing efforts would likely result in unhappy diners and bad publicity. Before you decide how to market, pay attention to what you are marketing. Make sure your group's house is in order before you worry about how to call attention to it”, Pakroo, 2009. According to Kermani (2006), “marketing is the management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer requirements profitably” The goals of marketing include aiming at highest consumption, highest consumer satisfaction, and widest choice. Kolobukhova (2009), defines the tasks of marketing to include “research, analysis and estimation of real and potential consumers' needs, supporting development of new products and services, analyzing condition and development of markets, developing pricing policy, sales, and so on”. Kolobukhova (2009), asserts that: The tasks are performed during marketing process, which includes the following steps: market opportunities analysis, target markets choice, marketing mix development and marketing events execution. So, marketing studies demand for a definite product and opportunities of promoting sales and encouraging consumers.
Chartered Institute of Public Relations...