1. Definition of Total Quality Management (TQM)
There are numerous, widespread, diverse and often fashionable initiatives that potentially help manufacturing organisations in implementing various best practices in operations management. Examples of these initiatives include total productive maintenance (TPM), total quality management (TQM), Kanban, 5S, six sigma, Kaizen and business process re-engineering (BPR) (Ashutosh Tiwari, 2007). These criteria is a success stories to implement in this initiatives and make everything is going well. Critical factor in the success of operations management projects is a fast but comprehensive analysis of the current practices or structure in the company (Ashutosh Tiwari, 2007).
Table 2: Definition of Japanese Terms.
|Initiative |Core Ideas | |5S |Organisation and housekeeping (Hirano, 1996) | |TPM |Continuous improvement of equipment and processes (Campbell, 1995) | |TQM |Right first time (Oakland, 2003) | |Six sigma |Systematic and continuous improvement (Pande, 2001) | |JIT (Kanban) |Remove inventory buffers that prevent learning (Ono, 1988) | |Kaizen |Cost reduction through the elimination of waste (Imai, 1986) | |BPR |Reduction of complexity of workflow (Hammer, 2001) |
Total Quality Management (TQM) has been accepted as a disciplined management process in industry in order to cope with the changes in marketplace and to focus on quality in both their products as well as their services (Venkatraman, 2007). While applying TQM philosophy to their organisations, some managers think that quality is driven by internal productivity programs or participative management programs which may deviate from their core business and customer focus resulting in cost overruns. But this is wrong perception by managers because with TQM all the process and product quality increasing and achieve “zero defect” purpose. However, quality cannot be inspected into an individual unit of the product after it has been made.
The practice of inspecting products after they are made has, therefore, been replaced rapidly by the broader view that quality must be built into a product, from the design stage through all subsequent stages of manufacture and assembly. Because products are made by using several manufacturing processes, each of which can have significant variations in its performance even within a short period of time, the control of processes is a critical factor in product quality. Thus the objective should be to control processes not products. Quality has various meanings attached and the focus varies from one educational setting to another. Among the various elements of TQM, customer focus, process orientation and continuous improvements are the most common philosophies that have direct implications for teaching and learning in higher education (Venkatraman, 2007).
The general definition of total quality management (TQM) as a philosophy that would enable an organisation consistently to meet the needs of customers is accepted worldwide by manufacturing executives as a strategic concept for organisational survival. However, reaching the TQM destination is a continuing challenge for manufacturing executives (Nwabueze, An Industry Betrayed: the case of total quality management in manufacturing, 2011). Deming notes that everyone in the organisation from top to bottom, from office to technical...