Management: A Practical Introduction - Fourth Edition; Brian K. Williams, Angelo Kinincki, McGraw-Hill Irwin; 2009
1.0 Management – Total Quality Management
Quality means a product or service free of deficiencies, or the characteristic of a product or services that satisfy customer needs. Total quality management (TQM) is defined as a comprehensive approach – led by top management and supported throughout the organization – dedicated to continuous quality improvement, training, and customer satisfaction. There are four components of TQM; (i) make continuous improvement a priority, (ii) get every employee involved, (iii) listen to and learn from customers and employees, and (iv) use accurate standards to identify and eliminate problems. Therefore, TQM has two core principles; namely, (i) people orientation and (ii) improvement orientation.
1.1Principles of Total Quality Management (TQM)
People orientation defined as a focusing everyone on delivering customer value. Organizations adopting TQM value people as their most important resources- both those who create a product or service and those who receive it. Therefore, suppliers and customers also give more decision- making power besides employees. People orientation operates under the following assumptions; I. Delivering customer value is most important. The purpose of TQM is to focus people, resources, and work processes to deliver products or services that create value for customers. II. People will focus on quality if given empowerment. TQM assumes that employees and suppliers will concentrate on making quality improvements if given the decision-making power to do so. Besides that, customer also can be a valuable part of the process if they are given change to express choices. III. TQM requires training, teamwork, and cross-functional efforts. Employees and suppliers need to be well trained, and they must work in...