This literature review would explore the barriers in raising educational achievements of ethnic minority students. As this is a broad area of concern the literature would examine two main barriers such as social background issues and English as Additional Language (EAL) while briefly looking at other barriers such as… Statistical data collected from the Pupil Level Annual School Census (PLASC) 2002 would be analysed in respect to this group social economic status and its effect on their learning. The literature would outline the significance of raising achievement, particularly ICT teacher’s responsibility. This report would identify some strategies/solutions including pedagogical approaches to raising achievement which would be supported by research. The overall findings would illustrate why ethnic minority children underperform academically than their counterparts in school. INTRODUCTION
It is important to recognise that ethnic minority pupils may fall into the category of low class low achievement. (Battle and Lewis 2010 pg35) said “a person’s education is closed linked to their life chances, income and wellbeing” it’s therefore, fair to say that ethnic minority communities are most likely to underachievement than others because of their socio-economic conditions. Language in education has long been the subject of attention by educationists at all levels. Initially as concerning the 'problem' of teaching English to children for whom it is not a first language, The Swann Report 1985 pg385 Other drawbacks to raising achievement are institutional racism, lack of motivation, lack of suitable challenge, the appropriateness of activities and tasks, a mix-match of expectations, a perceived irrelevance of the activities and tasks. National Education Authority claim to be “raising achievement to higher levels and closing student achievement gaps are priorities in schools and communities at all economic levels and in urban, rural, and suburban settings”. (http://www.nea.org/home/17413.htm. Accessed 02/11/12)
What is Raising Achievement?
According to (DfES 0013-2006. Pg.6) (Excel and enjoy) raising achievement means a “tailored education for every child and young person, that gives them strength in the basics, stretches their aspirations, and builds their life chances. It will create opportunity for every child, regardless of their background”. Teachers have a committed liability to enable all learners to attain and achieve their full potential, whether they are SEN (Special Education Needs), EAL (English as an Additional Language) or ethnic minority student. What is Ethnic Minority?
The ethnic minorities in the UK, 50% are Asian or Asian British (Indian, Pakistani etc.), 25% are Black or Black British (Black African, Black Caribbean etc.), 15% are Mixed Race, 5% are Chinese and 5% are of other ethnic backgrounds. (http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/ethnic_minorities_education.htm. Accessed 02/11/12) Cabinet Office defined it as “Ethnicity refers to cultural heritage (thus the term ethnic minorities can also be used to include White ‘ethnic’ minority groups in Britain, such as the Irish or people from other European countries). However, the systematic historical and continuing pattern of disadvantage for Black and Asian groups singles them out for special consideration”. (webarchive.gov.uk. Accessed 02/11/12).
Barriers to Raising achievement
Socio class can cause inequality in class which could in turn influence the achievement in children; (C. Stephen pg.269) Social scientists have recognised the importance of an individual’s family socio economic status (SES) has an influence on the academic achievement of children since the mid-1960s. It could cause low their self-confidence and self-esteem “ethnic minorities may have special issues related to self-esteem. Because of prejudice, minority members are likely to see a negative...