Race Unit

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Western World vs. Islamic World
3 Characteristics of Islam:
They study the Quran
Non-secular
Head-wraps for women
Conservative
Strict
Quran
Conflict-driven
Muslim Ruled
Faith is everything
Constant war with other countries surrounding them
3 Characteristics of Western:
Obesity
Fast paced society
Freedom for women
Capitalist Society
Ethnocentric
Religious Beliefs Vary
Allies with the US
Samuel Huntington’s “Clash of Civilizations” (1993)
Professor at Harvard
Wasn’t first to put out a theory like this
But his writing did most to generalize and popularize this idea Huntington’s Theory
Future conflict in the world will be cultural, not economic or ideological Between western and non-western powers, and among non-Western powers Conflict will be between civilizations, not between nation-states How he defines “Civilization”

Cultural entity; has commonalities (language, history, religion, customs, institutions, self-identity) Broadest level of identity “I am part of the western world” 7 or 8 major Civilizations in the world

Western, Confucian (china), Japanese, Islamic, Hindu, Slavic-Orthodox, Latin American (includes south America), possibly African (or 8) Differences among civilizations/cultures are “not only real; they are basic” Basic: inherent, unchangeable

Differing views
Religion is among the most important thing that separates one civilization from another Differences don’t necessarily mean conflict of lead to violence, but.. The world is becoming a smaller place

Interactions are increasing
Raise awareness of these basic differences
Calls it “civilization-consciousness”
Become much more aware of what makes your civilization different Economic modernization and social change mean…
People don’t identify as much on the local level
The nation-state as a source of identity weakens
Identifying around a common religion has begun to fill this gap The West’s role
On one hand, it is at its peak of power
On the other hand, non-western civilizations are turning away from western culture “de-Westernization” in many non-western countries
“Asianization” in Japan; “Hinduization” of India; “re-Islamization” of the Middle East A desire to shape the world in non-Western ways
Cultural characteristics and differences are more difficult to change than political and economic ones Communists can become democrats
The rich can become poor
But a Russian cannot become and Estonian
Religion more significant than ethnicity
Can be half-French and half-Arab; but more difficult to be half-Catholic and half-Muslim Identity defined in ethnic and religious terms creates and “us” vs. “them” attitude Differences in culture and religion lead to differences over policy issues Informs how groups see human rights, immigration, trade, environment End of the cold war equals a redrawing of the map, but in religious and cultural, not ideological terms Separated the Christian world from the Islamic world

Says Muslim countries are less advanced economically; less stability in political systems Sees the west as trying to promote its own ideas like indivivualism, human rights, democracy, free markets, separation of church and state

Islam’s Historical Origins and Expansion: 600s-1200s CE

Arguments:
The terms Middle East, Arab, and Islam are not synonyms
Islam did not emerge in a vacuum. It drew on an array of cultural and religious traditions, including Judeo-Christianity Islam has never been static. People have adapted its core ideas since it spread beyond Arabia in the 620s CE. Movie Notes: Islam: Empire of Faith. Part 1: Prophet Muhammad and rise of Islam Ka’ba- holliest places in Islam

The mecca had rich differences in culture
There were arabs of the desert, Christians and jews
Muhammad was very intelligent, open minded, able to communicate with all sorts of people and could solve disputes Muhammad became known as “the trusted one”
Islam incorporated ideas that were already in Christianity and judism Muhammad...
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