Public Transport Reform in Indonesia, A Case Study in the City of Yogyakarta Ahmad Munawar
a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. an overall lack of capacity, lack of quality and choice, severe traffic congestion, usurpation of bus stops by hawkers, racketeering, insufficient funds to renew and repair vehicles, fragmentation of the bus sector, complexity and inflexibility of the current regulatory framework and ineffective legal and administrative structures.
Abstract—The provision of urban public transport in Indonesia is not free of problems. Some of the problems include: an overall lack of capacity, lack of quality and choice, severe traffic congestions and insufficient fund to renew and repair vehicles. Generally, the comfort and quality of the city bus is poor, and many of the vehicles are dilapidated and dirty. Surveys were carried out in the city of Yogyakarta, by counting city bus vehicles and occupancies, interviewing the bus passengers, drivers and institutional staffs, who involve in public transport management. This paper will then analyze the possible plan to develop the public transport system to become more attractive and to improve the public transport management. The short, medium and long term plans are analyzed, to find the best solutions. Some constraints such as social impacts and financial impact are also taken into accounts.
Keywords—City bus, management, public transport.
I. INTRODUCTION PROBLEM facing all urban areas in Asia, as well as in other developing countries is how to meet the growing demand for person movement. Traffic congestion has existed in urban areas since many years ago. Transport infrastructure and congestion issues are high on the agenda of such urban problems. The problem is not just a matter of traffic congestion, but it is one of regional planning. The planning has emphasized economic growth while paying little heed of traffic impact assessment. This is typical of the problems facing many South East Asian Cities, not least those of Indonesia, and reinforces the need of broader view in tackling urban transport problems than hitherto generally employed. According to the Indonesian Development Plan , traffic management strategies should be implemented as follows: a. development mass transportation system which should be well-run with reasonable price, efficient and safe. b. development the road network which has the least negative environmental and social impact, c. development integrated public transport system, d. development traffic management strategies to achieve high efficiency and high quality of service. II. URBAN PUBLIC TRANSPORT PROBLEMS IN INDONESIA The provision of public transport in Indonesian cities is not free of problems. Some of these problems include: Ahmad Munawar is with Department of Civil Engineering UGM, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).
It is important that public transport should offer a range of choice and quality to meet the aspirations of the riders . Generally, the comfort and quality of the public transport fleet is poor, and many of the vehicles are dilapidated and dirty . Whereas those who can least afford to travel may be prepared to suffer such indignities, people who can pay to travel by their own vehicles, or by taxi, would seldom find any temptation to use buses. Increasingly, patronage will be confined to the poorest members of society, thereby further eroding service levels and comfort. Chaotic traffic and a dilapidated public transport system cannot enhance the reputation of Indonesian big cities. A further factor is the use of heavily polluting low-grade fuel: the resultant plumes of black exhaust fumes gravely compromise the appeal of the streets as places to walk, work or enjoy. Needless to say, congestion is a problem, especially at peak periods. Public transport vehicles become snared in traffic jams, further...