IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT IN
“CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE”
Chronic Kidney Disease
"It's a silent disease" until the kidneys are severely damage, Andrew Levey, chief of nephrology at Tufts New England, Medical Center in Boston, said.
What is chronic kidney disease?
Chronic Kidney disease or CKD , is a condition that affects the function of the kidneys and that may progress over time to kidney failure. When the kidneys fail, dialysis or kidney transplant is needed to support life- and people can live in decades with dialysis and/or kidney transplant. Many disease can cause CKD . The most common are diabetes and high blood pressure. (Life options by the medical education institute, inc. if Madison Wis.)
Many people who have chronic kidney disease don’t know it, because the early signs can be very subtle. It can take many years to go from chronic kidney disease (CKD) to kidney failure. Some people with CKD live out their lives without ever reaching kidney failure.
However, for people at any stage of kidney disease, knowledge is power. Knowing the symptoms of kidney disease can help you get the treatment you need to feel your best.
Most chronic kidney disease (CKD) is not curable, but if its detected early there maybe a number of ways to slow down the disease, help the patients to feel better, and help them make better medical decisions.
Dorothea Orem's Self Care Theory
Nursing theory guides nursing practice. Dorothea Orem's self care theory is one of the general theories that can be applied to multiple settings in nursing practice. The dialysis arena is one area of nursing practice in which the application of this theory would be appropriate because it is crucial for patients to be actively involved in self care. Orem believed that people have a natural ability for self care and that nursing should focus on affecting that ability. (Orem 1995)
The goal of nursing practice is to assist patients to be adequately prepared to be engaged in their own care, thereby improving patient outcomes and quality of life. As nurses, we can do it by establishing a trusting nurse-patient relationship, providing support and education, allowing patient’s one control of their situation by participating in decision making, and encouraging patients to actively participate in the hemodialysis treatment.
Theory of Comfort: Katherine Kolcaba
Kolcaba defines health care needs as needs for comfort, arising from the stressful health care situations that cannot be met by recipient’s traditional support system. These needs include physical, psycho spiritual, social and environmental needs made apparent through monitoring and verbal or non verbal reports, needs related to pathophysiological parameters needs for education and support, and needs for financial counselling and interventions.
She also described comfort as the most important nursing action in the provision of nursing care for the sick. And it id the immediate and holistic experienced of being strengthened through having the needs met for the Three types of Comfort: Relief, Ease and Transcendence.
This is very essential of taking care and providing comfort to an old woman. Through intentional assessment of comfort needs, design of comfort measures to address needs and re assessments of comfort levels after implementation compared to the previous baseline to evaluate if patient comfort needs are met. Because enhancing her comfort strengthens her to engaged in improving her health status.
II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Chronic kidney disease
Chronic kidney disease is when one suffers from gradual and usually permanent loss of kidney function over time. This happens gradually over time, usually months to years. Chronic kidney disease is divided into five stages of increasing severity (see Table 1 below). Stage 5 chronic kidney failure is also...